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PubMed 25201519


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Title: Clinical and histological heterogeneity of congenital hyperinsulinism due to paternally inherited heterozygous ABCC8/KCNJ11 mutations.

Authors: Ved Bhushan Arya, Maria Guemes, Azizun Nessa, Syeda Alam, Pratik Shah, Clare Gilbert, Senthil Senniappan, Sarah E Flanagan, Sian Ellard, Khalid Hussain

Journal, date & volume: Eur. J. Endocrinol., 2014 Dec , 171, 685-95

PubMed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25201519


Abstract
Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) has two main histological types: diffuse and focal. Heterozygous paternally inherited ABCC8/KCNJ11 mutations (depending upon whether recessive or dominant acting and occurrence of somatic maternal allele loss) can give rise to either phenotype. However, the relative proportion of these two phenotypes in a large cohort of CHI patients due to paternally inherited heterozygous ABCC8/KCNJ11 mutations has not been reported.The purpose of this study is to highlight the variable clinical phenotype and to characterise the distribution of diffuse and focal disease in a large cohort of CHI patients due to paternally inherited heterozygous ABCC8/KCNJ11 mutations.A retrospective chart review of the CHI patients due to heterozygous paternally inherited ABCC8/KCNJ11 mutations from 2000 to 2013 was conducted.Paternally inherited heterozygous ABCC8/KCNJ11 mutations were identified in 53 CHI patients. Of these, 18 (34%) either responded to diazoxide or resolved spontaneously. Fluorine-18 l-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography computerised tomography 18F DOPA-PET CT) scanning in 3/18 children showed diffuse disease. The remaining 35 (66%) diazoxide-unresponsive children either had pancreatic venous sampling (n=8) or 18F DOPA-PET CT (n=27). Diffuse, indeterminate and focal disease was identified in 13, 1 and 21 patients respectively. Two patients with suspected diffuse disease were identified to have focal disease on histology.Paternally inherited heterozygous ABCC8/KCNJ11 mutations can manifest as a wide spectrum of CHI with variable 18F DOPA-PET CT/histological findings and clinical outcomes. Focal disease was histologically confirmed in 24/53 (45%) of CHI patients with paternally inherited heterozygous ABCC8/KCNJ11 mutations.