PubMed 17333249

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Cav1.1 , Slo1

Title: Gating of the HypoPP-1 mutations: I. Mutant-specific effects and cooperativity.

Authors: Alexey Kuzmenkin, Chao Hang, Elza Kuzmenkina, Karin Jurkat-Rott

Journal, date & volume: Pflugers Arch., 2007 Jun , 454, 495-505

PubMed link:

Hypokalemic periodic paralysis type 1 (HypoPP-1) is a hereditary muscular disorder caused by point mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel alpha subunit (Ca(v)1.1). Despite extensive research, the results on HypoPP-1 mutations are minor and controversial, as it is difficult to analyse Ca(2+) channel activation macroscopically due to an existence of two open states. In this study, we heterologously expressed the wild-type and HypoPP-1 mutations introduced into the rabbit cardiac Ca(2+) channel (R650H, R1362H, R1362G) in HEK-293 cells. To examine the cooperative effects of the mutations on channel gating, we expressed two double mutants (R650H/R1362H, R650H/R1362G). We performed whole-cell patch-clamp and, to obtain more information, applied a global fitting procedure whereby several current traces elicited by different potentials were simultaneously fit to the kinetic model containing four closed, two open and two inactivated states. We found that all HypoPP-1 mutations have "loss-of-function" features: D4/S4 mutations shift the equilibrium to the closed states, which results in reduced open probability, shorter openings and, therefore, in smaller currents, and the D2/S4 mutant slows the activation. In addition, HypoPP-1 histidine mutants favored the second open state O(2) with a possibly lower channel selectivity. Cooperativity between the D2/S4 and D4/S4 HypoPP-1 mutations manifested in dominant effects of the D4/S4 mutations on kinetics of the double mutants, suggesting different roles of D2/S4 and D4/S4 voltage sensors in the gating of voltage-gated calcium channels.