PubMed 26477273

Title: Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Urate-Induced Enhancement of Kv1.5 Channel Expression in HL-1 Atrial Myocytes.

Authors: Nani Maharani, Ya Kuang Ting, Jidong Cheng, Akira Hasegawa, Yasutaka Kurata, Peili Li, Yuji Nakayama, Haruaki Ninomiya, Nobuhito Ikeda, Kumi Morikawa, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Naomasa Makita, Takeshi Yamashita, Yasuaki Shirayoshi, Ichiro Hisatome

Journal, date & volume: Circ. J., 2015 , 79, 2659-68

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Hyperuricemia induces endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation, increasing cardiovascular morbidities. It also raises the incidence of atrial fibrillation; however, underlying mechanisms are unknown.The effects of urate on expression of Kv1.5 in cultured mouse atrial myocytes (HL-1 cells) using reverse transcriptase-PCR, immunoblots, flow cytometry and patch-clamp experiments were studied. Treatment with urate at 7 mg/dl for 24 h increased the Kv1.5 protein level, enhanced ultra-rapid delayed-rectifier K(+)channel currents and shortened action potential duration in HL-1 cells. HL-1 cells expressed the influx uric acid transporter (UAT), URATv1, and the efflux UATs, ABCG2 and MRP4. An inhibitor against URATv1, benzbromarone, abolished the urate effects, whereas an inhibitor against ABCG2, KO143, augmented them. Flow cytometry showed that urate induced an increase in reactive oxygen species, which was abolished by the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. Both NAC and apocynin abolished the enhancing effects of urate on Kv1.5 expression. A urate-induced increase in the Kv1.5 proteins was accompanied by phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and was abolished by an ERK inhibitor, PD98059. NAC abolished phosphorylation of ERK by urate.Intracellular urate taken up by UATs enhanced Kv1.5 protein expression and function in HL-1 atrial myocytes, which could be attributable to ERK phosphorylation and oxidative stress derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase.