PubMed 19544068

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: HCN3 , HCN4 , Slo1

Title: Sensitivity of HCN channel deactivation to cAMP is amplified by an S4 mutation combined with activation mode shift.

Authors: Wicks, Chan, Madden, Santoro, Young

Journal, date & volume: Pflugers Arch., 2009 Jun 21 , ,

PubMed link:

Hyperpolarisation-activation of HCN ion channels relies on the movement of a charged S4 transmembrane helix, preferentially stabilising the open conformation of the ion pore gate. The open state is additionally stabilised, (a) when cyclic AMP (cAMP) is bound to a cytoplasmic C-terminal domain or (b) when the "mode I" open state formed initially by gate opening undergoes a "mode shift" into a "mode II" open state with a new S4 conformation. We isolated a mutation (lysine 381 to glutamate) in S4 of mouse HCN4; patch-clamp of homomeric channels in excised inside-out membranes revealed a conditional phenotype. When cAMP-liganded K381E channels are previously activated by hyperpolarisation, tens of seconds are required for complete deactivation at a weakly depolarised potential; this "ultra-sustained activation" is not observed without cAMP. Whilst cAMP slows deactivation of wild-type channels, the K381E mutation amplifies this effect to enable extraordinary kinetic stabilisation of the open state. K381E channels retain S4-gate coupling, with strong voltage dependence of the rate-limiting step for deactivation of mode II channels near -40 mV. At these voltages, the mode I deactivation pathway shows a different rate-limiting step, lacking strong voltage or cAMP dependence. Ultra-sustained activation thus reflects stabilisation of the mode II open state by the K381E mutation in synergistic combination with cAMP binding. Thus, the voltage-sensing domain is subject to strong functional coupling not only to the pore domain but also to the cytoplasmic cAMP-sensing domain in a manner specific to the voltage sensor conformation.