PubMed 11346027

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Kv1.1

Title: Familial (idiopathic) paroxysmal dyskinesias: an update.

Authors: K P Bhatia

Journal, date & volume: , 2001 , 21, 69-74

PubMed link:

The clinical, pathophysiological and genetic features of some of the familial (idiopathic) paroxysmal movement disorders are reviewed. The paroxysmal dyskinesias share features and therefore may have the same pathophysiological mechanisms as other episodic neurological disorders which are known to be channelopathies. Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis/dyskinesias (PKC/PKD) is a condition in which brief and frequent dyskinetic attacks are provoked by sudden movement. Antiepileptics particularly carbamazepine are very helpful for this condition. PKC has similarities to episodic ataxia type 1 which is caused by mutations of the KCNA1 gene. PKC and a related disorder in which infantile convulsions are associated (ICCA syndrome) have recently been linked to the pericentromic region of chromososme 16 in the vicinity of some ion channel genes. Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is a rare disorder manifesting as episodes of dystonia mostly affecting the feet induced by continuous exercise like walking or running. The pathophysiology of PED is unknown and antiepileptic drugs are generally unhelpful. In paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis/nonkinesigenic dyskinesias (PDC/PNKD) the attacks are of long duration and induced by a variety of factors including coffee, tea, alcohol and fatigue but not by sudden movement. The gene for familial PDC has been linked to chromosome 2q close to a cluster of ion channel genes. Paroxysmal nocturnal dyskinesia is now known to be a form of frontal lobe epilepsy in some cases which may be familial with an autosomal dominant inheritance and has been given the eponym ADNFLE. ADNFLE is a genetically heterogenous condition. Mutations of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene that have chromosome 20q have been reported in some families with ADNFLE. However, another family with ADNFLE has been linked to chromosome 15 in the area of another nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene. Thus the familial paroxysmal dyskinesias appear to be clinically and genetically heterogeneous.