PubMed 12730870

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Automatically associated channels: Cav3.1

Title: Epigenetic and genetic alterations in duodenal carcinomas are distinct from biliary and ampullary carcinomas.

Authors: Sang Geol Kim, Annie On-On Chan, Tsung-Teh Wu, Jean-Pierre J Issa, Stanley R Hamilton, Asif Rashid

Journal, date & volume: Gastroenterology, 2003 May , 124, 1300-10

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Carcinomas of the extrahepatic bile ducts, ampulla of Vater, and duodenum are uncommon, and their epigenetic and genetic alterations are not well characterized.We therefore compared the methylation profile and genetic alterations in 18 extrahepatic biliary, 9 ampullary, and 12 duodenal carcinomas. We evaluated methylation at p16, p14, and human Mut L homologue (hMLH1) by methylation- specific PCR (MSP), and at cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), O(6)-methyl-guanine methyltransferase (MGMT), estrogen receptor (ER), retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RAR beta), and T-type calcium channel (CACNA1G) genes, and methylated in tumor 1 (MINT1), MINT2, MINT25, MINT27, and MINT31 loci by combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA); mutation of K-ras, p53, p16, and p14 genes by sequencing; loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 9p; and microsatellite instability (MSI).Duodenal carcinomas were methylated more frequently or had increased methylation densities than biliary carcinomas at p14 (P = 0.04), hMLH1 (P = 0.04), MGMT (P = 0.01), MINT1 (P = 0.01), MINT25 (P = 0.01), MINT27 (P = 0.001), RAR beta (P = 0.03), and ER (P = 0.001), and than ampullary carcinomas at RAR beta (P = 0.02) and ER (P = 0.03). In contrast, the methylation profiles of biliary and ampullary carcinomas were not statistically different. Simultaneous methylation of 3 or more CpG islands (CpG island methylator phenotype-high) was more common in duodenal cancers (P = 0.004). MGMT methylation was associated with G-to-A mutation in K-ras (P = 0.006), and hMLH1 methylation was associated with MSI-high (P = 0.01).Our findings indicate that the methylation profile and genetic alterations of duodenal carcinomas are distinct from biliary and ampullary carcinomas, and that tumor-specific methylation is associated with gene mutation and MSI.