PubMed 14981344

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Kir1.1 , Kir6.2

Title: Genetics and pathophysiology of hyperinsulinism in infancy.

Authors: Karen E Cosgrove, Ruth M Shepherd, Eva M Fernandez, Anuja Natarajan, Keith J Lindley, Albert Aynsley-Green, Mark J Dunne

Journal, date & volume: Horm. Res., 2004 , 61, 270-88

PubMed link:

Hyperinsulinism in infancy (HI) is a condition of neonates and early childhood. For many years the pathophysiology of this potentially lethal disorder was unknown. Advances in the genetics, histopathology and molecular physiology of this disease have now provided insights into the causes of beta-cell dysfunction and revealed levels of diversity far in excess of our previous knowledge. These include defects in ion channel subunit genes and mutations in several enzymes associated with beta-cell metabolism and anaplerosis. In most cases, beta-cell pathophysiology leads to an alteration in the function of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. This can manifest as 'channelopathies' of K(ATP) channels through gene defects in ABCC8 and KCNJ11 (Ch.11p15); or as a result of 'metabolopathies' through defects in the genes encoding glucokinase (GCK, Ch.7p15-p13), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1, Ch.10q23.3) and short-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HADHSC, Ch.4q22-q26). This review focuses upon the relationship between the causes of HI and therapeutic options.