PubMed 15362107

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Kv1.3

Title: Cell volume and the regulation of apoptotic cell death.

Authors: Florian Lang, Erich Gulbins, Ildikò Szabò, Albrecht Lepple-Wienhues, Stephan M Huber, Christophe Duranton, Karl S Lang, Philipp A Lang, Thomas Wieder

Journal, date & volume: J. Mol. Recognit., 2004 Sep-Oct , 17, 473-80

PubMed link:

Apoptosis is a physiological mechanism allowing for the removal of abundant or potentially harmful cells. The hallmarks of apoptosis include degradation of cellular DNA, exposure of phosphatidylserine at the outer leaflet of the cell membrane and cell shrinkage. Phosphatidylserine exposure favours adhesion to macrophages with subsequent phagocytosis of the shrunken apoptotic particles. The interaction of cell volume regulatory mechanisms and apoptosis is illustrated in two different model systems, i.e. (a) lymphocyte apoptosis following stimulation of CD95 receptor and (b) erythrocyte apoptosis upon cell shrinkage. (a) Triggering of CD95 in Jurkat T lymphocytes is paralleled by activation of cell volume regulatory Cl- channels, inhibition of the Na+/H+ exchanger and osmolyte release. The latter coincides with cell shrinkage, DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine exposure. CD95 stimulation leads to early inhibition of the voltage gated K+ channel Kv1.3, which may contribute to the inhibition of the Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ channel I(CRAC). (b) Osmotic shock of erythrocytes activates a cell volume regulatory cation conductance allowing the entry not only of Na+ but of Ca2+ as well. Increased cytosolic Ca2+ stimulates a scramblase which disrupts the phosphatidylserine asymmetry of the cell membrane, leading to phosphatidylserine exposure. The cation conductance is further activated by oxidative stress and energy depletion and inhibited by Cl-. Shrinkage of erythrocytes stimulates in addition a sphingomyelinase with subsequent formation of ceramide which potentiates the effect of cytosolic Ca2+ on phosphatidylserine. In conclusion, cell volume-sensitive mechanisms participate in the triggering of apoptosis following receptor stimulation or cell injury.