PubMed 15111645

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Cav1.2 , Kir2.3

Title: Modulation of the voltage sensor of L-type Ca2+ channels by intracellular Ca2+.

Authors: Dmytro Isaev, Karisa Solt, Oksana Gurtovaya, John P Reeves, Roman Shirokov

Journal, date & volume: J. Gen. Physiol., 2004 May , 123, 555-71

PubMed link:

Both intracellular calcium and transmembrane voltage cause inactivation, or spontaneous closure, of L-type (CaV1.2) calcium channels. Here we show that long-lasting elevations of intracellular calcium to the concentrations that are expected to be near an open channel (>/=100 microM) completely and reversibly blocked calcium current through L-type channels. Although charge movements associated with the opening (ON) motion of the channel's voltage sensor were not altered by high calcium, the closing (OFF) transition was impeded. In two-pulse experiments, the blockade of calcium current and the reduction of gating charge movements available for the second pulse developed in parallel during calcium load. The effect depended steeply on voltage and occurred only after a third of the total gating charge had moved. Based on that, we conclude that the calcium binding site is located either in the channel's central cavity behind the voltage-dependent gate, or it is formed de novo during depolarization through voltage-dependent rearrangements just preceding the opening of the gate. The reduction of the OFF charge was due to the negative shift in the voltage dependence of charge movement, as previously observed for voltage-dependent inactivation. Elevation of intracellular calcium concentration from approximately 0.1 to 100-300 microM sped up the conversion of the gating charge into the negatively distributed mode 10-100-fold. Since the "IQ-AA" mutant with disabled calcium/calmodulin regulation of inactivation was affected by intracellular calcium similarly to the wild-type, calcium/calmodulin binding to the "IQ" motif apparently is not involved in the observed changes of voltage-dependent gating. Although calcium influx through the wild-type open channels does not cause a detectable negative shift in the voltage dependence of their charge movement, the shift was readily observable in the Delta1733 carboxyl terminus deletion mutant, which produces fewer nonconducting channels. We propose that the opening movement of the voltage sensor exposes a novel calcium binding site that mediates inactivation.