PubMed 25762128

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: ClvC2 , ClvC4 , ClvC7

Title: Regulatory-auxiliary subunits of CLC chloride channel-transport proteins.

Authors: Alejandro Barrallo-Gimeno, Antonella Gradogna, Ilaria Zanardi, Michael Pusch, Raúl Estévez

Journal, date & volume: J. Physiol. (Lond.), 2015 Sep 15 , 593, 4111-27

PubMed link:

The CLC family of chloride channels and transporters is composed by nine members, but only three of them, ClC-Ka/b, ClC-7 and ClC-2, have been found so far associated with auxiliary subunits. These CLC regulatory subunits are small proteins that present few common characteristics among them, both structurally and functionally, and their effects on the corresponding CLC protein are different. Barttin, a protein with two transmembrane domains, is essential for the membrane localization of ClC-K proteins and their activity in the kidney and inner ear. Ostm1 is a protein with a single transmembrane domain and a highly glycosylated N-terminus. Unlike the other two CLC auxiliary subunits, Ostm1 shows a reciprocal relationship with ClC-7 for their stability. The subcellular localization of Ostm1 depends on ClC-7 and not the other way around. ClC-2 is active on its own, but GlialCAM, a transmembrane cell adhesion molecule with two extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, regulates its subcellular localization and activity in glial cells. The common theme for these three proteins is their requirement for a proper homeostasis, since their malfunction leads to distinct diseases. We will review here their properties and their role in normal chloride physiology and the pathological consequences of their improper function.