PubMed 26133701

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Slo1 , TRP , TRPM , TRPM2

Title: Purinergic Signaling Is a Novel Mechanism of the Cellular Response to Ionizing Radiation.

Authors: Mitsutoshi Tsukimoto

Journal, date & volume: Biol. Pharm. Bull., 2015 , 38, 951-9

PubMed link:

Recent studies suggest the effect of radiation is observed not only in irradiated cells but also in adjacent non-irradiated cells (bystander effect), although the mechanism has not yet been fully revealed. This bystander effect may be caused by intercellular communication via a gap junction or by messengers released from irradiated cells, such as reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, or cytokines. However, an unknown mechanism is also possible in the bystander effect. On the other hand, it is known that extracellular ATP, ADP, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), and uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP), which are released from cells, act as intercellular signaling molecules by activating purinergic P2X and P2Y receptors (purinergic signaling). Recently, I have suggested these extracellular nucleotides may be novel mediators of a radiation-induced bystander effect, because our recent studies indicated that purinergic signaling is involved in important cellular responses to radiation. Our data indicate that ionizing irradiation causes activation of the transient receptor potential melastatin type 2 (TRPM2) channel, and then ATP is released from cells through the anion channel or connexin43 hemichannel mediated by the activation of a P2X7 receptor. The released nucleotides activate P2Y6 and P2Y12 receptors, which are involved in the DNA damage response after irradiation. Activation of the P2Y6 receptor is also involved in radiation-induced activation of the epithelial growth factor receptor-extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (EGFR-ERK)1/2 pathway and subsequent nuclear translocation of EGFR, which plays a role in DNA repair. Further, the induction of an antioxidant after irradiation is also mediated by the activation of the P2Y receptor. In conclusion, purinergic signaling could play an important role in the protective cellular response to ionizing irradiation.