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PubMed 27138488


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Automatically associated channels: Nav1 , Nav1.4



Title: Synthesis of the Paralytic Shellfish Poisons (+)-Gonyautoxin 2, (+)-Gonyautoxin 3, and (+)-11,11-Dihydroxysaxitoxin.

Authors: John V Mulcahy, James R Walker, Jeffrey E Merit, Alan Whitehead, J Du Bois

Journal, date & volume: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016 May 11 , 138, 5994-6001

PubMed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27138488


Abstract
The paralytic shellfish poisons are a collection of guanidine-containing natural products that are biosynthesized by prokaryote and eukaryote marine organisms. These compounds bind and inhibit isoforms of the mammalian voltage-gated Na(+) ion channel at concentrations ranging from 10(-11) to 10(-5) M. Here, we describe the de novo synthesis of three paralytic shellfish poisons, gonyautoxin 2, gonyautoxin 3, and 11,11-dihydroxysaxitoxin. Key steps include a diastereoselective Pictet-Spengler reaction and an intramolecular amination of an N-guanidyl pyrrole by a sulfonyl guanidine. The IC50's of GTX 2, GTX 3, and 11,11-dhSTX have been measured against rat NaV1.4, and are found to be 22 nM, 15 nM, and 2.2 μM, respectively.