PubMed 24743743

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: SK1

Title: Reduced IRE1α mediates apoptotic cell death by disrupting calcium homeostasis via the InsP3 receptor.

Authors: S M Son, J Byun, S-E Roh, S J Kim, I Mook-Jung

Journal, date & volume: Cell Death Dis, 2014 , 5, e1188

PubMed link:

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is not only a home for folding and posttranslational modifications of secretory proteins but also a reservoir for intracellular Ca(2+). Perturbation of ER homeostasis contributes to the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases. One key regulator that underlies cell survival and Ca(2+) homeostasis during ER stress responses is inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α). Despite extensive studies on this ER membrane-associated protein, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which excessive ER stress triggers cell death and Ca(2+) dysregulation via the IRE1α-dependent signaling pathway. In this study, we show that inactivation of IRE1α by RNA interference increases cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in SH-SY5Y cells, leading to cell death. This dysregulation is caused by an accelerated ER-to-cytosolic efflux of Ca(2+) through the InsP3 receptor (InsP3R). The Ca(2+) efflux in IRE1α-deficient cells correlates with dissociation of the Ca(2+)-binding InsP3R inhibitor CIB1 and increased complex formation of CIB1 with the pro-apoptotic kinase ASK1, which otherwise remains inactivated in the IRE1α-TRAF2-ASK1 complex. The increased cytosolic concentration of Ca(2+) induces mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in particular superoxide, resulting in severe mitochondrial abnormalities, such as fragmentation and depolarization of membrane potential. These Ca(2+) dysregulation-induced mitochondrial abnormalities and cell death in IRE1α-deficient cells can be blocked by depleting ROS or inhibiting Ca(2+) influx into the mitochondria. These results demonstrate the importance of IRE1α in Ca(2+) homeostasis and cell survival during ER stress and reveal a previously unknown Ca(2+)-mediated cell death signaling between the IRE1α-InsP3R pathway in the ER and the redox-dependent apoptotic pathway in the mitochondrion.