PubMed 24992664

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: KChip2a , Kv1.4 , Kv3.1 , Kv4.2 , Kv4.3

Title: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes impair Kv4.2/4.3 channel activities, delay membrane repolarization and induce bradyarrhythmias in the rat.

Authors: Xiao-qiu Tan, Xiu-Li Cheng, Li Zhang, Bo-wei Wu, Qing-Hua Liu, Jie Meng, Hai-Yan Xu, Ji-Min Cao

Journal, date & volume: PLoS ONE, 2014 , 9, e101545

PubMed link:

The potential hazardous effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on cardiac electrophysiology are seldom evaluated. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of MWCNTs on the Kv4/Ito channel, action potential and heart rhythm and the underlying mechanisms.HEK293 cells were engineered to express Kv4.2 or Kv4.3 with or without KChIP2 expression. A series of approaches were introduced to analyze the effects of MWCNTs on Kv4/Ito channel kinetics, current densities, expression and trafficking. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to observe the internalization of MWCNTs in HEK293 cells and rat cardiomyocytes. Current clamp was employed to record the action potentials of isolated rat cardiomyocytes. Surface ECG and epicardial monophasic action potentials were recorded to monitor heart rhythm in rats in vivo. Vagal nerve discharge monitoring and H&E staining were also performed.Induction of MWCNTs into the cytosole through pipette solution soon accelerated the decay of IKv4 in HEK293 cells expressing Kv4.2/4.3 and KChIP2, and promoted the recovery from inactivation when Kv4.2 or Kv4.3 was expressed alone. Longer exposure (6 h) to MWCNTs decreased the IKv4.2 density, Kv4.2/Kv4.3 (but not KChIP2) expression and trafficking towards the plasma membrane in HEK293 cells. In acutely isolated rat ventricular myocytes, pipette MWCNTs also quickly accelerated the decay of IKv4 and prolonged the action potential duration (APD). Intravenous infusion of MWCNTs (2 mg/rat) induced atrioventricular (AV) block and even cardiac asystole. No tachyarrhythmia was observed after MWCNTs administration. MWCNTs did not cause coronary clot but induced myocardial inflammation and increased vagus discharge.MWCNTs suppress Kv4/Ito channel activities likely at the intracellular side of plasma membrane, delay membrane repolarization and induce bradyarrhythmia. The delayed repolarization, increased vagus output and focal myocardial inflammation may partially underlie the occurrence of bradyarrhythmias induced by MWCNTs. The study warns that MWCNTs are hazardous to cardiac electrophysiology.