PubMed 26003068

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Title: Meconium ileus in newborns with cystic fibrosis - results of treatment in the group of patients operated on in the years 2000-2014.

Authors: Maria Boczar, Ewa Sawicka, Katarzyna Zybert

Journal, date & volume: Dev Period Med, 2015 Jan-Mar , 19, 32-40

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Evaluation of diagnostic and treatment procedures in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) operated on because of meconium ileus (MI).The authors retrospectively reviewed the documentation of 10 CF newborn patients operated on in the years 2000-2014 because of MI. In prenatal ultrasound (US) examinations, suspicion of bowel abnormalities was raised in 2 cases, even though all the 10 mothers had a minimum of 3 US examinations during pregnancy. The mean gestational age of the newborns was 39.2 weeks - 36-41 weeks), their mean birth weight 3472g (2560-4550 g). Family history of CF was positive in two patients. Genetic testing was performed in all the children operated on.In all the children operated on, mutations in both alleles of the CFTR gene were found. Five patients were F508del homozygotic, 4 were heterozygotic for this mutation, one had another mutation. Sweat tests were positive in all the children. Abdominal distention was observed in 9 patients, vomiting and retention of gastric contents in 5. In 8 children meconium was not passed at all. 2 children passed a small amount of viscid meconium. Before the operation, rectal saline washouts were done in 5 newborns. Five patients were operated on during the first day of life, four on the second day and one on the third day of life. Intra-operatively a simple form of MI was diagnosed in 8 cases, a complicated form in 2 cases. In patients with the simple form of MI, a Bishop-Koop stoma was created after the evacuation of meconium. Two of these children needed a resection of some centimetres of dilated terminal ileum with doubtful viability. In newborns with the complicated form of MI, the treatment was individualized, always with stoma formation. The time of postoperative meconium evacuation through enterostomy ranged from 6 to 15 days. Enteral feeding was started on average on the 9th day postoperatively. The mean hospital stay was 22.9 days. In 8 children the stoma was taken out at the mean age of 19.4 months, in one patient the stoma closed spontaneously. No disturbances in electrolyte balance or excessive fluid loss, nor any body weight deficits connected with the stoma were observed. There were no complications during stoma closure. All the patients are alive. The time of observation ranges from 7 to 146 months (average 95 months). All the patients currently present respiratory symptoms, have pancreatic insufficiency and need pancreatic enzyme supplementation. Seven do not, however, have body weight and height deficits. All the children with weight and height deficits have abnormal liver function tests. During observation two patients had MI equivalent symptoms, which was resolved by conservative treatment.1. In every case of intra-operative diagnosis of MI, it is necessary to perform genetic testing and sweat tests to confirm or exclude CF. 2. Mechanical intra-operative decompression of the bowel from inspissated meconium with a temporary stoma, which makes the continuation of bowel decompression possible in the postoperative period, is an effective treatment in children with MI. 3. The Bishop-Koop stoma, permitting the passage through the whole gastrointestinal tract, is a safe option. In our material, no complications of this stoma, such as stoma care problems or dyselectrolithemia were observed. 4. The decision of stoma closure in children with MI and CF should be delayed until the moment of introducing a broadened diet and should be undertaken together with a pediatrician who is a specialist in CF therapy. .