PubMed 24756705

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: TRP , TRPC , TRPC1 , TRPC4 , TRPC5

Title: TRPC5.

Authors: Alexander V Zholos

Journal, date & volume: Handb Exp Pharmacol, 2014 , 222, 129-56

PubMed link:

Human canonical transient receptor potential channel 5 (TRPC5) has been cloned from the Xq23 region on chromosome X as a suspect in nonsyndromic mental retardation. TRPC5 is a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel predominantly expressed in the CNS, including the hippocampus, cerebellum, amygdala, sensory neurons, and retina. It also shows more restricted expression in the periphery, notably in the kidney and cardiovascular system. Homotetrameric TRPC5 channels are primarily activated by receptors coupled to Gq and phospholipase C and/or Gi proteins, but TRPC5 channels may also gate in a store-dependent manner, which requires other partner proteins such TRPC1, STIM1, and Orai1. There is an impressive array of other activators of TRPC5 channels, such as nitric oxide, lysophospholipids, sphingosine-1-phosphate, reduced thioredoxin, protons, lanthanides, and calcium, and many can cause its direct activation. Moreover, TRPC5 shows constitutive activity, and it is responsive to membrane stretch and cold. Thus, TRPC5 channels have significant potential for synergistic activation and may serve as an important focal point in Ca(2+) signalling and electrogenesis. Moreover, TRPC5 functions in partnership with about 60 proteins, including TRPC1, TRPC4, calmodulin, IP3 receptors, NHERF, NCS-1, junctate, stathmin 2, Ca(2+)-binding protein 1, caveolin, and SESTD1, while its desensitisation is mediated by both protein kinases A and C. TRPC5 has a distinct voltage dependence shared only with its closest relative, TRPC4. Its unique N-shaped activation curve underlined by intracellular Mg(2+) block seems to be perfectly "shaped" to trigger action potential discharge, but not to grossly interfere with the action potential shape. The range of biological functions of TRPC5 channels is also impressive, from neurotransmission to control of axon guidance and vascular smooth muscle cell migration and contractility. Recent studies of Trpc5 gene knockouts begin to uncover its roles in fear, anxiety, seizures, and cold sensing.