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PubMed 24832553


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Title: Human relevance framework evaluation of a novel rat developmental toxicity mode of action induced by sulfoxaflor.

Authors: Robert G Ellis-Hutchings, Reza J Rasoulpour, Claire Terry, Edward W Carney, Richard Billington

Journal, date & volume: Crit. Rev. Toxicol., 2014 May , 44 Suppl 2, 45-62

PubMed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24832553


Abstract
Sulfoxaflor (CAS# 946578-00-3) is a novel active substance with insecticidal properties mediated via its agonism on the highly abundant insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). In developmental and reproductive toxicity studies, gestational exposure caused fetal abnormalities (primarily limb contractures) and reduced neonatal survival in rats, but not rabbits, following high-dose dietary exposure. Sulfoxaflor induced these effects via a novel mode of action (MoA) mediated by the fetal-type muscle nAChR with the following key events: (1) binding to the receptor, (2) agonism on the receptor, causing (3) sustained muscle contracture in the near-term fetus and neonatal offspring. This sustained muscle contracture results in misshapen limbs, bent clavicles, and reduced diaphragm function, which compromises respiration in neonatal rats at birth, reducing their survival. This review evaluates the weight of evidence for this MoA based upon the Bradford Hill criteria, includes a cross-comparison of applied and internal doses in a variety of in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo study designs, examines alternative MoAs, and applies a Human relevance framework (HRF) to ascertain human risk for this rat MoA. The review indicated, with a high level of confidence, that the sulfoxaflor-induced fetal abnormalities and neonatal death in rats occur via a single MoA comprising sustained activation of the rat fetal-type muscle nAChR resulting in a sustained muscle contracture. This MoA is considered not relevant to humans, given fundamental qualitative differences in sulfoxaflor agonism on the rat versus the human muscle nAChR. Specifically, sulfoxaflor does not cause agonism on either the human fetal- or adult-type muscle nAChR.