PubMed 24462864

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: TRP , TRPM , TRPM2

Title: TRPM2 contributes to LPS/IFNγ-induced production of nitric oxide via the p38/JNK pathway in microglia.

Authors: Takahito Miyake, Hisashi Shirakawa, Ayaka Kusano, Shinya Sakimoto, Masakazu Konno, Takayuki Nakagawa, Yasuo Mori, Shuji Kaneko

Journal, date & volume: Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2014 Feb 7 , 444, 212-7

PubMed link:

Microglia are immune cells that maintain brain homeostasis at a resting state by surveying the environment and engulfing debris. However, in some pathological conditions, microglia can produce neurotoxic factors such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) that lead to neuronal degeneration. Inflammation-induced calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling is thought to underlie this abnormal activation of microglia, but the mechanisms are still obscure. We previously showed that combined application of lipopolysaccharide and interferon γ (LPS/IFNγ) induced-production of NO in microglia from wild-type (WT) mice is significantly reduced in microglia from transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2)-knockout (KO) mice. Here, we found that LPS/IFNγ produced a late-onset Ca(2+) signaling in WT microglia, which was abolished by application of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and ML-171. In addition, pharmacological blockade or gene deletion of TRPM2 channel in microglia did not show this Ca(2+) signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological manipulation and Western blotting revealed that Ca(2+) mobilization, the proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) contributed to TRPM2-mediated LPS/IFNγ-induced activation, while the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) did not. These results suggest that LPS/IFNγ activates TRPM2-mediated Ca(2+) signaling, which in turn increases downstream p38 MAPK and JNK signaling and results in increased NO production in microglia.