PubMed 23103617

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: ClvC3 , ClvC4

Title: Chloride channels in stroke.

Authors: Ya-ping Zhang, Hao Zhang, Dayue Darrel Duan

Journal, date & volume: Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 2013 Jan , 34, 17-23

PubMed link:

Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles, including proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain, ie, stroke. Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Cl(-)) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke. At least three Cl(-) channel genes are expressed in VSMCs: 1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1), which may encode the calcium-activated Cl(-) channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Cl(-) channel and Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter, which is closely related to the volume-regulated Cl(-) channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes the PKA- and PKC-activated Cl(-) channels. Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca(2+) causes membrane depolarization, vasoconstriction, and inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs. Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension. In addition, Cl(-) current mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death. This review focuses on the functional roles of Cl(-) channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Cl(-) channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.