PubMed 22245792

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: KCNQ1 , Kv11.1 , Kv7.1

Title: Ranolazine stabilizes cardiac ryanodine receptors: a novel mechanism for the suppression of early afterdepolarization and torsades de pointes in long QT type 2.

Authors: Ashish Parikh, Rajkumar Mantravadi, Dmitry Kozhevnikov, Michael A Roche, Yanping Ye, Laura J Owen, Jose Luis Puglisi, Jonathan J Abramson, Guy Salama

Journal, date & volume: Heart Rhythm, 2012 Jun , 9, 953-60

PubMed link:

Ranolazine (Ran) is known to inhibit multiple targets, including the late Na(+)current, the rapid delayed rectifying K(+)current, the L-type Ca(2+)current, and fatty acid metabolism. Functionally, Ran suppresses early afterdepolarization (EADs) and torsades de pointes (TdP) in drug-induced long QT type 2 (LQT2) presumably by decreasing intracellular [Na(+)](i) and Ca(2+)overload. However, simulations of EADs in LQT2 failed to predict their suppression by Ran.To elucidate the mechanism(s) whereby Ran alters cardiac action potentials (APs) and cytosolic Ca(2+)transients and suppresses EADs and TdP in LQT2.The known effects of Ran were included in simulations (Shannon and Mahajan models) of rabbit ventricular APs and Ca(2+)transients in control and LQT2 models and compared with experimental optical mapping data from Langendorff rabbit hearts treated with E4031 (0.5 μM) to block the rapid delayed rectifying K(+)current. Direct effects of Ran on cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) were investigated in single channels and changes in Ca(2+)-dependent high-affinity ryanodine binding.Ran (10 μM) alone prolonged action potential durations (206 ± 4.6 to 240 ± 7.8 ms; P <0.05); E4031 prolonged action potential durations (204 ± 6 to 546 ± 35 ms; P <0.05) and elicited EADs and TdP that were suppressed by Ran (10 μM; n = 7 of 7 hearts). Simulations (Shannon but not Mahajan model) closely reproduced experimental data except for EAD suppression by Ran. Ran reduced open probability (P(o)) of RyR2 (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 10 ± 3 μM; n = 7) in bilayers and shifted half maximal effective concentration for Ca(2+)-dependent ryanodine binding from 0.42 ± 0.02 to 0.64 ± 0.02 μM with 30 μM Ran.Ran reduces P(o) of RyR2, desensitizes Ca(2+)-dependent RyR2 activation, and inhibits Ca(i) oscillations, which represents a novel mechanism for its suppression of EADs and TdP.