PubMed 23211706

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Kir6.2

Title: Essential elements for glucosensing by gastric vagal afferents: immunocytochemistry and electrophysiology studies in the rat.

Authors: Gintautas Grabauskas, Shi-Yi Zhou, Yuanxu Lu, Il Song, Chung Owyang

Journal, date & volume: Endocrinology, 2013 Jan , 154, 296-307

PubMed link:

Glucosensing nodose ganglia neurons mediate the effects of hyperglycemia on gastrointestinal motility. We hypothesized that the glucose-sensing mechanisms in the nodose ganglia are similar to those of hypothalamic glucose excited neurons, which sense glucose through glycolysis. Glucose metabolism leads to ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP)) channel closure and membrane depolarization. We identified glucosensing elements in the form of glucose transporters (GLUTs), glucokinase (GK), and K(ATP) channels in rat nodose ganglia and evaluated their physiological significance. In vitro stomach-vagus nerve preparations demonstrated the gastric vagal afferent response to elevated glucose. Western blots and RT-PCR revealed the presence of GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT4, GK, and Kir6.2 in nodose ganglia neurons and gastric branches of the vagus nerve. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the expression of GLUT3, GK, and Kir6.2 in nodose ganglia neurons (46.3 ± 3%). Patch-clamp studies detected glucose excitation in 30% (25 of 83) of gastric-projecting nodose ganglia neurons, which was abolished by GLUT3 or GK short hairpin RNA transfections. Silencing GLUT1 or GLUT4 in nodose ganglia neurons did not prevent the excitatory response to glucose. Elevated glucose elicited a response from 43% of in vitro nerve preparations. A dose-dependent response was observed, reaching maximum at a glucose level of 250 mg/dl. The gastric vagal afferent responses to glucose were inhibited by diazoxide, a K(ATP) channel opener. In conclusion, a subset of neurons in the nodose ganglia and gastric vagal afferents are glucoresponsive. Glucosensing requires a GLUT, GK, and K(ATP) channels. These elements are transported axonally to the gastric vagal afferents, which can be activated by elevated glucose through modulation of K(ATP) channels.