PubMed 23252893

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Kir2.3

Title: Structure of the neuromuscular junction: function and cooperative mechanisms in the synapse.

Authors: Masaharu Takamori

Journal, date & volume: Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 2012 Dec , 1274, 14-23

PubMed link:

As an overview of the structure of the neuromuscular junction, three items are described focusing on cooperative mechanisms involving the synapse and leading to muscle contraction: (1) presynaptic acetylcholine release regulated by vesicle cycling (exocytosis and endocytosis); the fast-mode of endocytosis requires a large influx of external Ca(2+) and is promoted by the activation of G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases; (2) postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor clustering mediated by the muscle-specific, Dok7-stimulated tyrosine kinase (MuSK) through two signaling mechanisms: one via agrin-Lrp4-MuSK (Ig1/2 domains) and the second via Wnt-MuSK (Frizzled-like cysteine-rich domain)-adaptor Dishevelled; Wnts/MuSK and Lrp4 direct a retrograde signal to presynaptic differentiation; (3) muscle contractile machinery regulated by Ca(2+) -release and Ca(2+) -influx channels, including the depolarization-activated ryanodine receptor-1 and the receptor- and/or store-operated transient receptor potential canonical. The first mechanism is dysfunctional in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, the second in anti-acetylcholine receptor-negative myasthenia gravis (MG), and the third in thymoma-associated MG.