PubMed 23316064

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Cav1.2 , Nav1 , Nav1.5 , Slo1

Title: Bradycardia alters Ca(2+) dynamics enhancing dispersion of repolarization and arrhythmia risk.

Authors: Jong J Kim, Jan Nemec, Rita Papp, Robert Strongin, Jonathan J Abramson, Guy Salama

Journal, date & volume: Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol., 2013 Mar 15 , 304, H848-60

PubMed link:

Bradycardia prolongs action potential (AP) durations (APD adaptation), enhances dispersion of repolarization (DOR), and promotes tachyarrhythmias. Yet, the mechanisms responsible for enhanced DOR and tachyarrhythmias remain largely unexplored. Ca(2+) transients and APs were measured optically from Langendorff rabbit hearts at high (150 × 150 μm(2)) or low (1.5 × 1.5 cm(2)) magnification while pacing at a physiological (120 beats/min) or a slow heart rate (SHR = 50 beats/min). Western blots and pharmacological interventions were used to elucidate the regional effects of bradycardia. As a result, bradycardia (SHR 50 beats/min) increased APDs gradually (time constant τf→s = 48 ± 9.2 s) and caused a secondary Ca(2+) release (SCR) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during AP plateaus, occurring at the base on average of 184.4 ± 9.7 ms after the Ca(2+) transient upstroke. In subcellular imaging, SCRs were temporally synchronous and spatially homogeneous within myocytes. In diastole, SHR elicited variable asynchronous sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release events leading to subcellular Ca(2+) waves, detectable only at high magnification. SCR was regionally heterogeneous, correlated with APD prolongation (P < 0.01, n = 5), enhanced DOR (r = 0.9277 ± 0.03, n = 7), and was gradually reversed by pacing at 120 beats/min along with APD shortening (P < 0.05, n = 5). A stabilizer of leaky ryanodine receptors (RyR2), 3-(4-benzylcyclohexyl)-1-(7-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzo[f][1,4]thiazepin-4(5H)-yl)propan-1-one (K201; 1 μM), suppressed SCR and reduced APD at the base, thereby reducing DOR (P < 0.02, n = 5). Ventricular ectopy induced by bradycardia (n = 5/15) was suppressed by K201. Western blot analysis revealed spatial differences of voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channel protein (Cav1.2α), Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange (NCX1), voltage-gated Na(+) channel (Nav1.5), and rabbit ether-a-go-go-related (rERG) protein [but not RyR2 or sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase 2a] that correlate with the SCR distribution and explain the molecular basis for SCR heterogeneities. In conclusion, acute bradycardia elicits synchronized subcellular SCRs of sufficient magnitude to overcome the source-sink mismatch and to promote afterdepolarizations.