PubMed 23594614

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: TRP , TRPC

Title: Stress peptide PACAP engages multiple signaling pathways within the carotid body to initiate excitatory responses in respiratory and sympathetic chemosensory afferents.

Authors: Arijit Roy, Fatemeh Derakhshan, Richard J A Wilson

Journal, date & volume: Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol., 2013 Jun , 304, R1070-84

PubMed link:

Consistent with a critical role in respiratory and autonomic stress responses, the carotid bodies are strongly excited by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a neuropeptide implicated in stress responses throughout the sympathetic nervous system. PACAP excites isolated carotid body glomus cells via activation of PAC1 receptors, with one study suggesting PAC1-induced excitation is due entirely to protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated inhibition of TASK channels. However, in other systems, PAC1 is known to be coupled to multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including PKA, phospholipase C (PLC), phospholipase D (PLD), and protein kinase C (PKC), that trigger multiple downstream effectors including increased Ca²⁺ mobilization, inhibition of various K⁺ channels, and activation of nonselective cation channels. This study tests if non-PKA/TASK channel signaling helps mediate the stimulatory effects of PACAP on the carotid body. Using an ex vivo arterially perfused rat carotid body preparation, we show that PACAP-38 stimulates carotid sinus nerve activity in a biphasic manner (peak response, falling to plateau). PKA blocker H-89 only reduced the plateau response (~41%), whereas the TASK-1-like K⁺ channel blocker/transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel agonist anandamide only inhibited the peak response (~48%), suggesting involvement of additional pathways. The PLD blocker CAY10594 significantly inhibited both peak and plateau responses. The PLC blocker U73122 decimated both peak and plateau responses. Brefeldin A, a blocker of Epac (cAMP-activated guanine exchange factor, reported to link Gs-coupled receptors with PLC/PLD), also reduced both phases of the response, as did blocking signaling downstream of PLC/PLD with the PKC inhibitors chelerythrine chloride and GF109203X. Suggesting the involvement of non-TASK ion channels in the effects of PACAP, the A-type K⁺ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine, and the putative transient receptor potential channel (TRPC)/T-type calcium channel blocker SKF96365 each significantly inhibited the peak and steady-state responses. These data suggest the stimulatory effect of PACAP-38 on carotid body sensory activity is mediated through multiple signaling pathways: the PLC-PKC pathways predominates, with TRPC and/or T-type channel activation and Kv channel inactivation; only partial involvement is attributable to PKA and PLD activation.