PubMed 22590648

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Cav1.2 , Cav2.2 , Kir2.3

Title: Distinct RGK GTPases differentially use α1- and auxiliary β-binding-dependent mechanisms to inhibit CaV1.2/CaV2.2 channels.

Authors: Tingting Yang, Akil Puckerin, Henry M Colecraft

Journal, date & volume: PLoS ONE, 2012 , 7, e37079

PubMed link:

Ca(V)1/Ca(V)2 channels, comprised of pore-forming α(1) and auxiliary (β,α(2)δ) subunits, control diverse biological responses in excitable cells. Molecules blocking Ca(V)1/Ca(V)2 channel currents (I(Ca)) profoundly regulate physiology and have many therapeutic applications. Rad/Rem/Rem2/Gem GTPases (RGKs) strongly inhibit Ca(V)1/Ca(V)2 channels. Understanding how RGKs block I(Ca) is critical for insights into their physiological function, and may provide design principles for developing novel Ca(V)1/Ca(V)2 channel inhibitors. The RGK binding sites within Ca(V)1/Ca(V)2 channel complexes responsible for I(Ca) inhibition are ambiguous, and it is unclear whether there are mechanistic differences among distinct RGKs. All RGKs bind β subunits, but it is unknown if and how this interaction contributes to I(Ca) inhibition. We investigated the role of RGK/β interaction in Rem inhibition of recombinant Ca(V)1.2 channels, using a mutated β (β(2aTM)) selectively lacking RGK binding. Rem blocked β(2aTM)-reconstituted channels (74% inhibition) less potently than channels containing wild-type β(2a) (96% inhibition), suggesting the prevalence of both β-binding-dependent and independent modes of inhibition. Two mechanistic signatures of Rem inhibition of Ca(V)1.2 channels (decreased channel surface density and open probability), but not a third (reduced maximal gating charge), depended on Rem binding to β. We identified a novel Rem binding site in Ca(V)1.2 α(1C) N-terminus that mediated β-binding-independent inhibition. The Ca(V)2.2 α(1B) subunit lacks the Rem binding site in the N-terminus and displays a solely β-binding-dependent form of channel inhibition. Finally, we discovered an unexpected functional dichotomy amongst distinct RGKs- while Rem and Rad use both β-binding-dependent and independent mechanisms, Gem and Rem2 use only a β-binding-dependent method to inhibit Ca(V)1.2 channels. The results provide new mechanistic perspectives, and reveal unexpected variations in determinants, underlying inhibition of Ca(V)1.2/Ca(V)2.2 channels by distinct RGK GTPases.