PubMed 22622459

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Cav2.1

Title: Tissue kallikrein activation of the epithelial Na channel.

Authors: Ankit B Patel, Julie Chao, Lawrence G Palmer

Journal, date & volume: Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol., 2012 Aug 15 , 303, F540-50

PubMed link:

Epithelial Na Channels (ENaC) are responsible for the apical entry of Na(+) in a number of different epithelia including the renal connecting tubule and cortical collecting duct. Proteolytic cleavage of γ-ENaC by serine proteases, including trypsin, furin, elastase, and prostasin, has been shown to increase channel activity. Here, we investigate the ability of another serine protease, tissue kallikrein, to regulate ENaC. We show that excretion of tissue kallikrein, which is secreted into the lumen of the connecting tubule, is stimulated following 5 days of a high-K(+) or low-Na(+) diet in rats. Urinary proteins reconstituted in a low-Na buffer activated amiloride-sensitive currents (I(Na)) in ENaC-expressing oocytes, suggesting an endogenous urinary protease can activate ENaC. We next tested whether tissue kallikrein can directly cleave and activate ENaC. When rat ENaC-expressing oocytes were exposed to purified tissue kallikrein from rat urine (RTK), ENaC currents increased threefold in both the presence and absence of a soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI). RTK and trypsin both decreased the apparent molecular mass of cleaved cell-surface γ-ENaC, while immunodepleted RTK produced no shift in apparent molecular mass, demonstrating the specificity of the tissue kallikrein. A decreased effect of RTK on Xenopus ENaC, which has variations in the putative prostasin cleavage sites in γ-ENaC, suggests these sites are important in RTK activation of ENaC. Mutating the prostasin site in mouse γ-ENaC (γRKRK186QQQQ) abolished ENaC activation and cleavage by RTK while wild-type mouse ENaC was activated and cleaved similar to that of the rat. We conclude that tissue kallikrein can be a physiologically relevant regulator of ENaC activity.