PubMed 22455919

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: ClvC4 , Slo1

Title: Molecular dynamics investigation of Cl- and water transport through a eukaryotic CLC transporter.

Authors: Mary Hongying Cheng, Rob D Coalson

Journal, date & volume: Biophys. J., 2012 Mar 21 , 102, 1363-71

PubMed link:

Early crystal structures of prokaryotic CLC proteins identified three Cl(-) binding sites: internal (S(int)), central (S(cen)), and external (S(ext)). A conserved external GLU (GLU(ex)) residue acts as a gate competing for S(ext). Recently, the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic transporter, CmCLC, revealed that in this transporter GLU(ex) competes instead for S(cen). Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate Cl(-) transport through CmCLC. The gating and Cl(-)/H(+) transport cycle are inferred through comparative molecular dynamics simulations with protonated and deprotonated GLU(ex) in the presence/absence of external potentials. Adaptive biasing force calculations are employed to estimate the potential of mean force profiles associated with transport of a Cl(-) ion from S(ext) to S(int), depending on the Cl(-) occupancy of other sites. Our simulations demonstrate that protonation of GLU(ex) is essential for Cl(-) transport from S(ext) to S(cen). The S(cen) site may be occupied by two Cl(-) ions simultaneously due to a high energy barrier (∼8 Kcal/mol) for a single Cl(-) ion to translocate from S(cen) to S(int). Binding two Cl(-) ions to S(cen) induces a continuous water wire from S(cen) to the extracellular solution through the side chain of the GLU(ex) gate. This may initiate deprotonation of GLU(ex), which then drives the two Cl(-) ions out of S(cen) toward the intracellular side via two putative Cl(-) transport paths. Finally, a conformational cycle is proposed that would account for the exchange stoichiometry.