PubMed 22242185

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: KCNQ1 , Kv11.1 , Kv7.1

Title: Trafficking-deficient G572R-hERG and E637K-hERG activate stress and clearance pathways in endoplasmic reticulum.

Authors: Ying Wang, Xiaoyan Huang, Jianqing Zhou, Xi Yang, Di Li, Haiyan Mao, Huan Huan Sun, Ningsheng Liu, Jiangfang Lian

Journal, date & volume: PLoS ONE, 2012 , 7, e29885

PubMed link:

Long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2) is the second most common type of all long QT syndromes. It is well-known that trafficking deficient mutant human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) proteins are often involved in LQT2. Cells respond to misfolded and trafficking-deficient proteins by eliciting the unfolded protein response (UPR) and Activating Transcription Factor (ATF6) has been identified as a key regulator of the mammalian UPR. In this study, we investigated the role of ER chaperone proteins (Calnexin and Calreticulin) in the processing of G572R-hERG and E637K-hERG mutant proteins.pcDNA3-WT-hERG, pcDNA3-G572R-hERG and pcDNA3-E637K-hERG plasmids were transfected into U2OS and HEK293 cells. Confocal microscopy and western blotting were used to analyze subcellular localization and protein expression. Interaction between WT or mutant hERGs and Calnexin/Calreticulin was tested by coimmunoprecipitation. To assess the role of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway in the degradation of mutant hERG proteins, transfected HEK293 cells were treated with proteasome inhibitors and their effects on the steady state protein levels of WT and mutant hERGs were examined.Our results showed that levels of core-glycosylated immature forms of G572R-hERG and E637K-hERG in association with Calnexin and Calreticulin were higher than that in WT-hERG. Both mutant hERG proteins could activate the UPR by upregulating levels of active ATF6. Furthermore, proteasome inhibition increased the levels of core-glycosylated immature forms of WT and mutant hERGs. In addition, interaction between mutant hERGs and Calnexin/Calreticulin was stronger after proteasome inhibition, compared to WT-hERG. These results suggest that trafficking-deficient G572R-hERG and E637K-hERG mutant proteins can activate ER stress pathways and are targeted to the proteasome for degradation. Calnexin and Calreticulin play important roles in these processes.