PubMed 22308486

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Kir3.4

Title: Hypertension with or without adrenal hyperplasia due to different inherited mutations in the potassium channel KCNJ5.

Authors: Ute I Scholl, Carol Nelson-Williams, Peng Yue, Roger Grekin, Robert J Wyatt, Michael J Dillon, Robert Couch, Lisa K Hammer, Frances L Harley, Anita Farhi, Wen-Hui Wang, Richard P Lifton

Journal, date & volume: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2012 Feb 14 , 109, 2533-8

PubMed link:

We recently implicated two recurrent somatic mutations in an adrenal potassium channel, KCNJ5, as a cause of aldosterone-producing adrenal adenomas (APAs) and one inherited KCNJ5 mutation in a Mendelian form of early severe hypertension with massive adrenal hyperplasia. The mutations identified all altered the channel selectivity filter, producing increased Na(+) conductance and membrane depolarization, the signal for aldosterone production and proliferation of adrenal glomerulosa cells. We report herein members of four kindreds with early onset primary aldosteronism of unknown cause. Sequencing of KCNJ5 revealed that affected members of two kindreds had KCNJ5(G151R) mutations, identical to one of the prevalent recurrent mutations in APAs. These individuals had severe progressive aldosteronism and hyperplasia requiring bilateral adrenalectomy in childhood for blood pressure control. Affected members of the other two kindreds had KCNJ5(G151E) mutations, which are not seen in APAs. These subjects had easily controlled hypertension and no evidence of hyperplasia. Surprisingly, electrophysiology of channels expressed in 293T cells demonstrated that KCNJ5(G151E) was the more extreme mutation, producing a much larger Na(+) conductance than KCNJ5(G151R), resulting in rapid Na(+)-dependent cell lethality. We infer that this increased lethality limits adrenocortical cell mass and the severity of aldosteronism in vivo, accounting for the milder phenotype among these patients. These findings demonstrate striking variations in phenotypes and clinical outcome resulting from different mutations of the same amino acid in KCNJ5 and have implications for the diagnosis and pathogenesis of primary aldosteronism with and without adrenal hyperplasia.