PubMed 21827920

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Cav2.1 , Kv1.1

Title: Episodic ataxias 1 and 2.

Authors: Robert W Baloh

Journal, date & volume: Handb Clin Neurol, 2012 , 103, 595-602

PubMed link:

The episodic ataxias are autosomal dominant disorders usually beginning in the first two decades of life. Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is characterized by brief episodes of ataxia, typically lasting seconds, and interictal myokymia, while episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) is manifested by longer episodes of ataxia (hours) with interictal nystagmus. The EA1 gene (KCNA1) codes for the six transmembrane segments (S1 to S6) of the Kv1.1 potassium channel subunit and the EA2 gene (CACNA1A) encodes for the Ca(v)2.1 subunit of the P/Q calcium channel complex. EA1 mutations are always missense while most EA2 mutations disrupt the reading frame. Studies of the biophysical properties of the mutant Kv1.1 and Ca(v)2.1 channels in Xenopus oocytes and mammalian cell lines demonstrate clear physiologic consequences of the genetic mutations although no consistent pattern for genotype-phenotype correlation has emerged. Genetic testing for EA1 and EA2 is available, but since no single mutation is prominent for either KCNA1 or CACNA1A, all of the coding regions of the genes need to be screened for mutations. Acetazolamide can be dramatic in controlling episodes of ataxia with EA2 but is typically less beneficial with EA1.