PubMed 21059656

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: ClvC4 , Slo1

Title: Charge transport in the ClC-type chloride-proton anti-porter from Escherichia coli.

Authors: Gernot Kieseritzky, Ernst-Walter Knapp

Journal, date & volume: J. Biol. Chem., 2011 Jan 28 , 286, 2976-86

PubMed link:

The first chloride transporter identified in the superfamily of ClC chloride channels was from Escherichia coli (EClC) (Accardi, A., and Miller, C. (2004) Nature 427, 803-807). Pathways, energetics, and mechanism of proton and chloride translocation and their coupling are up to now unclear. To bridge the hydrophobic gap of proton transport, we modeled four stable buried waters into both subunits of the WT EClC structure. Together they form a "water wire" connecting Glu-203 with the chloride at the central site, which in turn connects to Glu-148, the hypothetical proton exit site. Assuming the transient production of hydrochloride in the central chloride binding site of EClC, the water wire could establish a transmembrane proton transport pathway starting from Glu-203 all the way downstream onto Glu-148. We demonstrated by electrostatic and quantum chemical computations that protonation of the central chloride is energetically feasible. We characterized all chloride occupancies and protonation states possibly relevant for the proton-chloride transport cycle in EClC and constructed a working model. Accordingly, EClC evolves through states involving up to two excess protons and between one and three chlorides, which was required to fulfill the experimentally observed 2:1 stoichiometry. We show that the Y445F and E203H mutants of EClC can operate similarly, thus explaining why they exhibit almost WT activity levels. The proposed mechanism of coupled chloride-proton transport in EClC is consistent with available experimental data and allows predictions on the importance of specific amino acids, which may be probed by mutation experiments.