PubMed 20698502

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Automatically associated channels: Kv10.1

Title: Integration of a precolumn fluorogenic reaction, separation, and detection of reduced glutathione.

Authors: Juanfang Wu, Jerome P Ferrance, James P Landers, Stephen G Weber

Journal, date & volume: Anal. Chem., 2010 Sep 1 , 82, 7267-73

PubMed link:

Reduced glutathione (GSH) has been determined by fluorescence detection after derivatization together with a variety of separations. The reactions between GSH and fluorescent reagents usually are carried out during the sample pretreatment and require minutes to hours for complete reactions. For continuous monitoring of GSH, it would be very convenient to have an integrated microdevice that could perform online precolumn derivatization, separation, and detection. Heretofore, thiol-specific fluorogenic reagents require fairly long reaction times, preventing effective online precolumn derivatization. We demonstrate here that the fluorogenic, thiol-specific reagent, ThioGlo-1, reacts rapidly enough for efficient precolumn derivatization. The second order rate constant for the reaction of GSH and reagent (pH 7.5, room temperature) is 2.1 x 10(4) M(-1)s(-1). The microchip integrates this precolumn derivatization, continuous flow gated sampling, separation, and detection on a single device. We have validated this device for monitoring GSH concentration continuously by studying the kinetics of glutathione reductase (EC, an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to GSH in the presence of beta-NADPH (beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form) as a reducing cofactor. During the experiment, GSH being generated in the enzymatic reaction was labeled with ThioGlo-1 as it passed through a mixing channel on the microfluidic chip. Derivatization reaction products were introduced into the analysis channel every 10 s using flow gated injections of 0.1 s. Baseline separation of the internal standard, ThioGlo-1, and the fluorescently labeled GSH was successfully achieved within 4.5 s in a 9 mm separation channel. Relative standard deviations of the peak area, peak height, and full width at half-maximum (fwhm) for the internal standard were 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.0%, respectively, with migration time reproducibility for the internal standard of less than 0.1% RSD in any experiment. The GSH concentration and mass detection limit were 4.2 nM and approximately 10(-18) mol, respectively. The Michaelis constants (K(m)) for GSSG and beta-NADPH were found to be 40 +/- 11 and 4.4 +/- 0.6 muM, respectively, comparable with those obtained from UV/vis spectrophotometric measurements. These results show that this system is capable of integrating derivatization, injection, separation, and detection for continuous GSH determinations.