PubMed 19351517

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: KCNQ1 , Kv2.1 , Kv7.1 , Nav1.5

Title: Arrhythmogenic substrate and its modification by nicorandil in a murine model of long QT type 3 syndrome.

Authors: Sandeep S Hothi, Stephen W Booth, Ian N Sabir, Matthew J Killeen, Fergus Simpson, Yanmin Zhang, Andrew A Grace, Christopher L-H Huang

Journal, date & volume: Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol., 2008 Oct-Nov , 98, 267-80

PubMed link:

The gain-of-function Scn5a+/DeltaKPQ mutation in the cardiac Na(+) channel causes human long QT type 3 syndrome (LQT3) associated with ventricular arrhythmogenesis. The K(ATP) channel-opener nicorandil (20muM) significantly reduced arrhythmic incidence in Langendorff-perfused Scn5a+/Delta hearts during programmed electrical stimulation; wild-types (WTs) showed a total absence of arrhythmogenicity. These observations precisely correlated with alterations in recently established criteria for re-entrant excitation reflected in: (1) shortened left-ventricular epicardial but not endocardial monophasic action potential durations at 90% repolarization (APD(90)) that (2) restored transmural repolarization gradients, DeltaAPD(90). Scn5a+/Delta hearts showed longer epicardial but not endocardial APD(90)s, giving shorter DeltaAPD(90)s than WT hearts. Nicorandil reduced epicardial APD(90) in both Scn5a+/Delta and WT hearts thereby increasing DeltaAPD(90). (3) Reduced epicardial critical intervals for re-excitation; Scn5a+/Delta hearts showed greater differences between APD(90) and ventricular effective refractory period than WT hearts that were reduced by nicorandil. (4) Reduced APD(90) alternans. Scn5a+/Delta hearts showed greater epicardial and endocardial alternans than WTs, which increased with pacing rate. Nicorandil reduced these in Scn5a+/Delta hearts to levels indistinguishable from untreated WTs. (5) Flattened restitution curves. Scn5a+/Delta hearts showed larger epicardial and endocardial critical diastolic intervals than WT hearts. Nicorandil decreased these in Scn5a+/Delta and WT hearts. The presence or absence of arrhythmogenesis in Scn5a+/Delta and WT hearts thus agreed with previously established criteria for re-entrant excitation, and alterations in these precisely correlated with the corresponding antiarrhythmic effects of nicorandil. Together these findings implicate spatial and temporal re-entrant mechanisms in arrhythmogenesis in LQT3 and their reversal by nicorandil.