PubMed 15849247

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Cav1.1 , Cav1.2

Title: Multiple loops of the dihydropyridine receptor pore subunit are required for full-scale excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle.

Authors: Leah Carbonneau, Dipankar Bhattacharya, David C Sheridan, Roberto Coronado

Journal, date & volume: Biophys. J., 2005 Jul , 89, 243-55

PubMed link:

Understanding which cytosolic domains of the dihydropyridine receptor participate in excitation-contraction (EC) coupling is critical to validate current structural models. Here we quantified the contribution to skeletal-type EC coupling of the alpha1S (CaV1.1) II-III loop when alone or in combination with the rest of the cytosolic domains of alpha1S. Chimeras consisting of alpha1C (CaV1.2) with alpha1S substitutions at each of the interrepeat loops (I-II, II-III, and III-IV loops) and N- and C-terminal domains were evaluated in dysgenic (alpha1S-null) myotubes for phenotypic expression of skeletal-type EC coupling. Myotubes were voltage-clamped, and Ca2+ transients were measured by confocal line-scan imaging of fluo-4 fluorescence. In agreement with previous results, the alpha1C/alpha1S II-III loop chimera, but none of the other single-loop chimeras, recovered a sigmoidal fluorescence-voltage curve indicative of skeletal-type EC coupling. To quantify Ca2+ transients in the absence of inward Ca2+ current, but without changing the external solution, a mutation, E736K, was introduced into the P-loop of repeat II of alpha1C. The Ca2+ transients expressed by the alpha1C(E736K)/alpha1S II-III loop chimera were approximately 70% smaller than those expressed by the Ca2+-conducting alpha1C/alpha1S II-III variant. The low skeletal-type EC coupling expressed by the alpha1C/alpha1S II-III loop chimera was confirmed in the Ca2+-conducting alpha1C/alpha1S II-III loop variant using Cd2+ (10(-4) M) as the Ca2+ current blocker. In contrast to the behavior of the II-III loop chimera, Ca2+ transients expressed by an alpha1C/alpha1S chimera carrying all tested skeletal alpha1S domains (all alpha1S interrepeat loops, N- and C-terminus) were similar in shape and amplitude to wild-type alpha1S, and did not change in the presence of the E736K mutation or in the presence of 10(-4) M Cd2+. Controls indicated that similar dihydropyridine receptor charge movements were expressed by the non-Ca2+ permeant alpha1S(E1014K) variant, the alpha1C(E736K)/alpha1S II-III loop chimera, and the alpha1C(E736K)/alpha1S chimera carrying all tested alpha1S domains. The data indicate that the functional recovery produced by the alpha1S II-III loop is incomplete and that multiple cytosolic domains of alpha1S are necessary for a quantitative recovery of the EC-coupling phenotype of skeletal myotubes. Thus, despite the importance of the II-III loop there may be other critical determinants in alpha1S that influence the efficiency of EC coupling.