PubMed 16290328

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Kv12.1

Title: A model for short alpha-neurotoxin bound to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica: comparison with long-chain alpha-neurotoxins and alpha-conotoxins.

Authors: D Yu Mordvintsev, Ya L Polyak, O V Levtsova, Ye V Tourleigh, I E Kasheverov, K V Shaĭtan, Yu N Utkin, V I Tsetlin

Journal, date & volume: Comput Biol Chem, 2005 Dec , 29, 398-411

PubMed link:

Short-chain alpha-neurotoxins from snakes are highly selective antagonists of the muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Although their spatial structures are known and abundant information on topology of binding to nAChR is obtained by labeling and mutagenesis studies, the accurate structure of the complex is not yet known. Here, we present a model for a short alpha-neurotoxin, neurotoxin II from Naja oxiana (NTII), bound to Torpedo californica nAChR. It was built by comparative modeling, docking and molecular dynamics using 1H NMR structure of NTII, cross-linking and mutagenesis data, cryoelectron microscopy structure of Torpedo marmorata nAChR [Unwin, N., 2005. Refined structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at 4A resolution. J. Mol. Biol. 346, 967-989] and X-ray structures of acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) with agonists [Celie, P.H., van Rossum-Fikkert, S.E., van Dijk, W.J., Brejc, K., Smit, A.B., Sixma, T.K., 2004. Nicotine and carbamylcholine binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as studied in AChBP crystal structures. Neuron 41 (6), 907-914] and antagonists: alpha-cobratoxin, a long-chain alpha-neurotoxin [Bourne, Y., Talley, T.T., Hansen, S.B., Taylor, P., Marchot, P., 2005. Crystal structure of Cbtx-AChBP complex reveals essential interactions between snake alpha-neurotoxins and nicotinic receptors. EMBO J. 24 (8), 1512-1522] and alpha-conotoxin [Celie, P.H., Kasheverov, I.E., Mordvintsev, D.Y., Hogg, R.C., van Nierop, P., van Elk, R., van Rossum-Fikkert, S.E., Zhmak, M.N., Bertrand, D., Tsetlin, V., Sixma, T.K., Smit, A.B., 2005. Crystal structure of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor homolog AChBP in complex with an alpha-conotoxin PnIA variant. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 12 (7), 582-588]. In complex with the receptor, NTII was located at about 30 A from the membrane surface, the tip of its loop II plunges into the ligand-binding pocket between the alpha/gamma or alpha/delta nAChR subunits, while the loops I and III contact nAChR by their tips only in a 'surface-touch' manner. The toxin structure undergoes some changes during the final complex formation (for 1.45 rmsd in 15-25 ps according to AMBER'99 molecular dynamics simulation), which correlates with NMR data. The data on the mobility and accessibility of spin- and fluorescence labels in free and bound NTII were used in MD simulations. The binding process is dependent on spontaneous outward movement of the C-loop earlier found in the AChBP complexes with alpha-cobratoxin and alpha-conotoxin. Among common features in binding of short- and long alpha-neurotoxins is the rearrangement of aromatic residues in the binding pocket not observed for alpha-conotoxin binding. Being in general very similar, the binding modes of short- and long alpha-neurotoxins differ in the ways of loop II entry into nAChR.