PubMed 20933199

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: HCN3 , HCN4

Title: I(f) inhibition in cardiovascular diseases.

Authors: Catherine Thollon, Jean-Paul Vilaine

Journal, date & volume: Adv. Pharmacol., 2010 , 59, 53-92

PubMed link:

Heart rate (HR) is determined by the pacemaker activity of cells from the sinoatrial node (SAN), located in the right atria. Spontaneous electrical activity of SAN cells results from a diastolic depolarization (DD). Despite controversy in the exact contribution of funny current (I(f)) in pacemaking, it is a major contributor of DD. I(f) is an inward Na(+)/K(+) current, activated upon hyperpolarization and directly modulated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The f-proteins are hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, HCN4 being the main isoform of SAN. Ivabradine (IVA) decreases DD and inhibits I(f) in a use-dependent manner. Under normal conditions IVA selectively reduces HR and limits exercise-induced tachycardia, in animals and young volunteers. Reduction in HR with IVA both decreases myocardial oxygen consumption and increases its supply due to prolongation of diastolic perfusion time. In animal models and in human with coronary artery disease (CAD), IVA has anti-anginal and anti-ischemic efficacy, equipotent to classical treatments, β-blockers, or calcium channel blockers. As expected from its selectivity for I(f), the drug is safe and well tolerated with minor visual side effects. As a consequence, IVA is the first inhibitor of I(f) approved for the treatment of stable angina. Available clinical data indicate that IVA could improve the management of stable angina in all patients including those treated with β-blockers. As chronic elevation of resting HR is an independent predictor of mortality, pure HR reduction by inhibition of I(f) could, beyond the control of anti-anginal symptoms, improve the prognosis of CAD and heart failure; this therapeutic potential is currently under evaluation with IVA.