PubMed 19761816

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: ClvC2 , ClvC4

Title: Water permeability through aquaporin-4 is regulated by protein kinase C and becomes rate-limiting for glioma invasion.

Authors: E S McCoy, B R Haas, H Sontheimer

Journal, date & volume: Neuroscience, 2010 Jul 28 , 168, 971-81

PubMed link:

Glial-derived tumors, gliomas, are highly invasive cancers that invade normal brain through the extracellular space. To navigate the tortuous extracellular spaces, cells undergo dynamic changes in cell volume, which entails water flux across the membrane through aquaporins (AQPs). Two members of this family, AQP1 and AQP4 are highly expressed in primary brain tumor biopsies and both have a consensus phosphorylation site for protein kinase C (PKC), which is a known regulator of glioma cell invasion. AQP4 colocalizes with PKC to the leading edge of invading processes and clustered with chloride channel (ClC2) and K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (KCC1), believed to provide the pathways for Cl(-) and K(+) secretion to accomplish volume changes. Using D54MG glioma cells stably transfected with either AQP1 or AQP4, we show that PKC activity regulates water permeability through phosphorylation of AQP4. Activation of PKC with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or thrombin enhanced AQP4 phosphorylation, reduced water permeability and significantly decreased cell invasion. Conversely, inhibition of PKC activity with chelerythrine reduced AQP4 phosphorylation, enhanced water permeability and significantly enhanced tumor invasion. PKC regulation of AQP4 was lost after mutational inactivation of the consensus PKC phosphorylation site S180A. Interestingly, AQP1 expressing glioma cells, by contrast, were completely unaffected by changes in PKC activity. To demonstrate a role for AQPs in glioma invasion in vivo, cells selectively expressing AQP1, AQP4 or the mutated S180A-AQP4 were implanted intracranially into SCID mice. AQP4 expressing glioma cells showed significantly reduced invasion compared to AQP1 and S180 expressing tumors as determined by quantitative stereology, consistent with a differential role for AQP1 and AQP4 in this process.