PubMed 20433809

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Kv10.1 , Slo1

Title: Intracellular translocation of calmodulin and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II during the development of hypertrophy in neonatal cardiomyocytes.

Authors: Jaya Pal Gangopadhyay, Noriaki Ikemoto

Journal, date & volume: Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2010 May 28 , 396, 515-21

PubMed link:

We have recently shown that stimulation of cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes with endothelin-1 (ET-1) first produces conformational disorder within the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and diastolic Ca(2+) leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), then develops hypertrophy (HT) in the cardiomyocytes (Hamada et al., 2009 [3]). The present paper addresses the following question. By what mechanism does crosstalk between defective operation of RyR2 and activation of the HT gene program occur? Here we show that the immuno-stain of calmodulin (CaM) is localized chiefly in the cytoplasmic area in the control cells; whereas, in the ET-1-treated/hypertrophied cells, major immuno-staining is localized in the nuclear region. In addition, fluorescently labeled CaM that has been introduced into the cardiomyocytes using the BioPORTER system moves from the cytoplasm to the nucleus with the development of HT. The immuno-confocal imaging of Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) also shows cytoplasm-to-nucleus shift of the immuno-staining pattern in the hypertrophied cells. In an early phase of hypertrophic growth, the frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) transients increases, which accompanies with cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation of CaM. In a later phase of hypertrophic growth, further increase in the frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) transients results in the appearance of trains of Ca(2+) spikes, which accompanies with nuclear translocation of CaMKII. The cardio-protective reagent dantrolene (the reagent that corrects the de-stabilized inter-domain interaction within the RyR2 to a normal mode) ameliorates aberrant intracellular Ca(2+) events and prevents nuclear translocation of both CaM and CaMKII, then prevents the development of HT. These results suggest that translocation of CaM and CaMKII from the cytoplasm to the nucleus serves as messengers to transmit the pathogenic signal elicited in the surface membrane and in the RyR2 to the nuclear transcriptional sites to activate HT program.