PubMed 20459109

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: Kv10.1

Title: Mu-conotoxin KIIIA derivatives with divergent affinities versus efficacies in blocking voltage-gated sodium channels.

Authors: Min-Min Zhang, Tiffany S Han, Baldomero M Olivera, Grzegorz Bulaj, Doju Yoshikami

Journal, date & volume: Biochemistry, 2010 Jun 15 , 49, 4804-12

PubMed link:

The possibility of independently manipulating the affinity and efficacy of pore-blocking ligands of sodium channels is of interest for the development of new drugs for the treatment of pain. The analgesic mu-conotoxin KIIIA (KIIIA), a 16-residue peptide with three disulfide bridges, is a pore blocker of voltage-gated sodium channels, including neuronal subtype Na(V)1.2 (K(d) = 5 nM). At saturating concentrations, KIIIA incompletely blocks the sodium current of Na(V)1.2, leaving a 5% residual current (rI(Na)). Lys7 is an important residue: the K7A mutation decreases both the efficacy (i.e., increases rI(Na) to 23%) and the affinity of the peptide (K(d) = 115 nM). In this report, various replacements of residue 7 were examined to determine whether affinity and efficacy were inexorably linked. Because of their facile chemical synthesis, KIIIA analogues that had as a core structure the disulfide-depleted KIIIA[C1A,C2U,C9A,C15U] (where U is selenocysteine) or ddKIIIA were used. Analogues ddKIIIA and ddKIIIA[K7X], where X represents one of nine different amino acids, were tested on voltage-clamped Xenopus oocytes expressing rat Na(V)1.2 or Na(V)1.4. Their affinities ranged from 0.01 to 36 muM and rI(Na) values from 2 to 42%, and these two variables appeared to be uncorrelated. Instead, rI(Na) varied inversely with side chain size, and remarkably charge and hydrophobicity appeared to be inconsequential. The ability to manipulate a mu-conopeptide's affinity and efficacy, as well as its capacity to interfere with subsequent tetrodotoxin binding, greatly expands its scope as a reagent for probing sodium channel structure and function and may also lead to the development of mu-conotoxins as safe analgesics.