PubMed 19220292

Referenced in Channelpedia wiki pages of: none

Automatically associated channels: ClvC1 , ClvC4

Title: Statins and fenofibrate affect skeletal muscle chloride conductance in rats by differently impairing ClC-1 channel regulation and expression.

Authors: S Pierno, G M Camerino, V Cippone, J-F Rolland, J-F Desaphy, A De Luca, A Liantonio, G Bianco, J D Kunic, A L George, D Conte Camerino

Journal, date & volume: Br. J. Pharmacol., 2009 Apr , 156, 1206-15

PubMed link:

Statins and fibrates can produce mild to life-threatening skeletal muscle damage. Resting chloride channel conductance (gCl), carried by the ClC-1 channel, is reduced in muscles of rats chronically treated with fluvastatin, atorvastatin or fenofibrate, along with increased resting cytosolic calcium in statin-treated rats. A high gCl, controlled by the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase C (PKC), maintains sarcolemma electrical stability and its reduction alters muscle function. Here, we investigated how statins and fenofibrate impaired gCl.In rats treated with fluvastatin, atorvastatin or fenofibrate, we examined the involvement of PKC in gCl reduction by the two intracellular microelectrodes technique and ClC-1 mRNA level by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction. Direct drug effects were tested by patch clamp analysis on human ClC-1 channels expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells.Chelerythrine, a PKC inhibitor, applied in vitro on muscle dissected from atorvastatin-treated rats fully restored gCl, suggesting the involvement of this enzyme in statin action. Chelerythrine partially restored gCl in muscles from fluvastatin-treated rats but not in those from fenofibrate-treated rats, implying additional mechanisms for gCl impairment. Accordingly, a decrease of ClC-1 channel mRNA was found in both fluvastatin- and fenofibrate-treated rat muscles. Fenofibric acid, the in vivo metabolite of fenofibrate, but not fluvastatin, rapidly reduced chloride currents in HEK 293 cells.Our data suggest multiple mechanisms underlie the effect of statins and fenofibrate on ClC-1 channel conductance. While statins promote Ca(2+)-mediated PKC activation, fenofibrate directly inhibits ClC-1 channels and both fluvastatin and fenofibrate impair expression of mRNA for ClC-1.