Channelpedia

Cav3.1

Description: calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit
Gene: Cacna1g     Synonyms: cacna1g, cav3.1, ca3.1, Ca(v)3.1

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Introduction

Cav3.1 is a T type calcium channel, also know as a1G. It is a low voltage activated (LVA) calcium channel found in neurons and cardiac tissue.

Calcium channels are multimeric proteins consisting of a pore forming alpha-1 subunit and some combination of auxiliary beta, alpha-2delta and gamma subunits [477]. Multiple genes and gene splice variants encode members of each subunit family. The exten- sive biophysical and pharmacological diversity of native calcium currents can be attributed to variation in their molecular identities [477].


Experimental data


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Gene

RGD ID Chromosome Position Species
68942 10 83043636-83112886 Rat
68990 11 94269705-94335512 Mouse
68989 17 48638449-48704542 Human

Cacna1g : calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit


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Transcript

Acc No Sequence Length Source
NM_031601 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_009783 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_001112813 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_001177888 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_001177890 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_198380 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_198378 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_018896 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_198385 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_198384 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_198386 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_198379 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_198387 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_198376 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_198377 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_198383 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_198382 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_198388 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_198397 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_198396 n/A n/A NCBI

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Ontology

Accession Name Definition Evidence
GO:0048471 perinuclear region of cytoplasm Cytoplasm situated near, or occurring around, the nucleus. IDA
GO:0005886 plasma membrane The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell from its external environment. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins. IDA
GO:0016021 integral to membrane Penetrating at least one phospholipid bilayer of a membrane. May also refer to the state of being buried in the bilayer with no exposure outside the bilayer. When used to describe a protein, indicates that all or part of the peptide sequence is embedded in the membrane. IEA
GO:0043025 neuronal cell body The portion of a neuron that includes the nucleus, but excludes all cell projections such as axons and dendrites. IDA
GO:0030425 dendrite A neuron projection that has a short, tapering, often branched, morphology, receives and integrates signals from other neurons or from sensory stimuli, and conducts a nerve impulse towards the axon or the cell body. In most neurons, the impulse is conveyed from dendrites to axon via the cell body, but in some types of unipolar neuron, the impulse does not travel via the cell body. IDA
GO:0016020 membrane Double layer of lipid molecules that encloses all cells, and, in eukaryotes, many organelles; may be a single or double lipid bilayer; also includes associated proteins. IDA

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Interaction

Zn2+

Zn2+ influences human CaV 3.1, CaV 3.2 and CaV 3.3 channels. It causes for example a significant increase in CaV 3.3 current in action potential clamp experiments, while CaV 3.1 and CaV 3.2 currents are significantly reduced. [103]

Gamma Subunits

Gamma6 isoforms have a unique negative effect on Cav3.1 low voltage activated current density that is not seen with either gamma4 or gamma7. [104]


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Protein


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Structure


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Distribution


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Expression

Cav3.1 is expressed in rat cardiac myocytes and presumably contributes to the generation of the native cardiac low voltage activated calcium current [538].


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Functional

T-type Ca2+ channels are involved in cardiac pacemaker activity [529], [530], neuronal firing activity [531], sleep [532], hormone secretion [533] and fertilization [534]. T-type Ca2+ channels are also implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy [535], pain [536] and cardiac hypertrophy [537].


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Kinetics

T-type Ca2+ channels correspond to a subfamily of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels with specific hallmarks: low-voltage activation, transient inactivation kinetics and small unitary conductance [528].


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Model

[1] Cav3.1 (Model ID = 41)

AnimalCH
CellType CHO
Age 0 Days
Temperature0.0°C
Reversal 30.0 mV
Ion Ca +
Ligand ion
Reference Achraf Traboulsie et. al; J. Physiol. (Lond.) 2007 Jan 1
mpower 1.0
mInf 1 /(1+exp((v-(-42.921064))/-5.163208))
mTau -0.855809 + (1.493527 * exp(-v/27.414182)) If v lt -10
mTau 1.0 If v gteq -10
hpower 1.0
hInf 1 /(1+exp((v-(-72.907420))/4.575763))
hTau 9.987873 + (0.002883 * exp(-v/5.598574))
154

MOD - xml - channelML


References

103

Traboulsie A et al. Subunit-specific modulation of T-type calcium channels by zinc.
J. Physiol. (Lond.), 2007 Jan 1 , 578 (159-71).

105

Niwa N et al. Cav3.2 subunit underlies the functional T-type Ca2+ channel in murine hearts during the embryonic period.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol., 2004 Jun , 286 (H2257-63).

106

Lacinova L et al. Modulation of gating currents of the Ca(v)3.1 calcium channel by alpha 2 delta 2 and gamma 5 subunits.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 2004 May 15 , 425 (207-13).

528

Perez-Reyes E Molecular physiology of low-voltage-activated t-type calcium channels.
Physiol. Rev., 2003 Jan , 83 (117-61).

531

Huguenard JR Low-threshold calcium currents in central nervous system neurons.
Annu. Rev. Physiol., 1996 , 58 (329-48).

532

Anderson MP et al. Thalamic Cav3.1 T-type Ca2+ channel plays a crucial role in stabilizing sleep.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2005 Feb 1 , 102 (1743-8).

534

Arnoult C et al. Activation of mouse sperm T-type Ca2+ channels by adhesion to the egg zona pellucida.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1996 Nov 12 , 93 (13004-9).

477

Catterall WA Structure and regulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.
Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol., 2000 , 16 (521-55).


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Credits

Contributors: Rajnish Ranjan, Michael Schartner

To cite this page: [Contributors] Channelpedia https://channelpedia.epfl.ch/ionchannels/85/ , accessed on [date]