Channelpedia

Cav1.3

Description: calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit
Gene: Cacna1d     Synonyms: cacna1d, cav1.3, ca1.3

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Introduction

Cav1.3 is an L type, high voltage activated (HVA) calcium channel found in the certain neuronal dendrites. It is also known as a1E. Its role in hair cells has been studied [228], [229].

Four L-type voltage gated Ca channels (LTCC) isoforms evolved (termed Cav1.1, Cav1.2, Cav1.3, and Cav1.4). All of them are characterized by high sensitivity to dihydropyridine (DHP) Ca2+ channel modulators, although differences in their voltage-dependence of DHP block exist [511]. This unique DHP sensitivity distinguishes them from other voltage-gated Ca2+ channel types (non-LTCCs). LTCC isoforms differ considerably with respect to their gating properties and tissue expression [511]. The gating differences are intrinsic properties of their pore-forming alpha-1 subunits which assemble with accessory alpha-2-delta and beta-subunits (and in some tissues also a gamma-subunit) to form a functional channel complex [511].


Experimental data


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Gene

RGD ID Chromosome Position Species
70973 16 5383259-5703361 Rat
735458 14 30853125-31304342 Mouse
735457 3 53529031-53846492 Human

Cacna1d : calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit


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Transcript

Acc No Sequence Length Source
NM_017298 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_028981 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_001083616 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_001128840 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_001128839 n/A n/A NCBI
NM_000720 n/A n/A NCBI

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Ontology

Accession Name Definition Evidence
GO:0016021 integral to membrane Penetrating at least one phospholipid bilayer of a membrane. May also refer to the state of being buried in the bilayer with no exposure outside the bilayer. When used to describe a protein, indicates that all or part of the peptide sequence is embedded in the membrane. IEA
GO:0005891 voltage-gated calcium channel complex A protein complex that forms a transmembrane channel through which calcium ions may pass in response to changes in membrane potential. TAS
GO:0016020 membrane Double layer of lipid molecules that encloses all cells, and, in eukaryotes, many organelles; may be a single or double lipid bilayer; also includes associated proteins. IEA
GO:0016324 apical plasma membrane The region of the plasma membrane located at the apical end of the cell. IDA

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Interaction

Dihydropyridine

All L-type voltage gated Ca channels are characterized by high sensitivity to dihydropyridine (DHP) Ca2+ channel modulators, although differences in their voltage-dependence of DHP block exist [511].

L-type Dihydropyridine Antagonists

Cav1.3 is insensitive to the L-type dihydropyridine antagonists. [506]

Nifedipine and Bay K 8644

Nifedipine and Bay K 8644, respectively, block Cav1.3 channels. [230]


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Protein


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Structure


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Distribution

Calcium channels are clustered at synaptic release sites.[505]


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Expression

Cav1.3 can be found in auditory sensory hair cells, [505], neuronal cells and some epithelial cells [228]. In particular in the chick auditory papilla [507], frog saccule [508], trout saccule and mammalian cochlea [509], [510], [506].

Only L-type channels are present in turtle auditory hair cells. [228]


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Functional

Calcium channels are fundamental to signal processing in auditory sensory hair cells [511], regulating both the membrane excitability and neurotransmitter release [505].


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Kinetics

Cav1.3 have a hyperpolarized activation curve and fast (submillisecond) activation rise times. [506]


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Model


References

230

Michna M et al. Cav1.3 (alpha1D) Ca2+ currents in neonatal outer hair cells of mice.
J. Physiol. (Lond.), 2003 Dec 15 , 553 (747-58).

506

Koschak A et al. alpha 1D (Cav1.3) subunits can form l-type Ca2+ channels activating at negative voltages.
J. Biol. Chem., 2001 Jun 22 , 276 (22100-6).

507

Kollmar R et al. Predominance of the alpha1D subunit in L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels of hair cells in the chicken's cochlea.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1997 Dec 23 , 94 (14883-8).

508

Rodriguez-Contreras A et al. Direct measurement of single-channel Ca(2+) currents in bullfrog hair cells reveals two distinct channel subtypes.
J. Physiol. (Lond.), 2001 Aug 1 , 534 (669-89).

511

Striessnig J et al. L-type Ca2+ channels in Ca2+ channelopathies.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2004 Oct 1 , 322 (1341-6).

498


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Credits

Contributors: Rajnish Ranjan, Michael Schartner

To cite this page: [Contributors] Channelpedia https://channelpedia.epfl.ch/ionchannels/81/ , accessed on [date]