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Phenotypical manifestations of mutations in the genes encoding subunits of the cardiac sodium channel.

Arthur A M Wilde, Ramon Brugada

Circ. Res., 2011 Apr 1 , 108, 884-97

Variations in the gene encoding for the major sodium channel (Na(v)1.5) in the heart, SCN5A, has been shown to cause a number of arrhythmia syndromes (with or without structural changes in the myocardium), including the long-QT syndrome (type 3), Brugada syndrome, (progressive) cardiac conduction disease, sinus node dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, atrial standstill, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Of equal importance are variations in genes encoding for various subunits and regulatory proteins interacting with the α-subunit Na(v)1.5 and modifying its function. Based on detailed studies of genotype-phenotype relationships in these disease entities, on detailed studies of the basic electrophysiological phenotypes (heterologous expressed wild-type and mutant sodium channels and their interacting proteins), and on attempts to integrate the obtained knowledge, the past 15 years has witnessed an explosion of knowledge about these disease entities.