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Distinctive pharmacology and kinetics of cloned neuronal Ca2+ channels and their possible counterparts in mammalian CNS neurons.

J F Zhang, A D Randall, P T Ellinor, W A Horne, W A Sather, T Tanabe, T L Schwarz, R W Tsien

Neuropharmacology, 1993 Nov , 32, 1075-88

This paper provides a brief overview of the diversity of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and our recent work on neuronal Ca2+ channels with novel pharmacological and biophysical properties that distinguish them from L, N, P or T-type channels. The Ca2+ channel alpha 1 subunit known as alpha 1A or BI [Mori Y., Friedrich T., Kim M.-S., Mikami A., Nakai J., Ruth P., Bosse E., Hofmann F., Flockerzi V., Furuichi T., Mikoshiba K., Imoto K., Tanabe T. and Numa S. (1991) Nature 350, 398-402] is generally assumed to encode the P-type Ca2+ channel. However, we find that alpha 1A expressed in Xenopus oocytes differs from P-type channels in its kinetics of inactivation and its degree of sensitivity to block by the peptide toxins omega-Aga-IVA and omega-CTx-MVIIC [Sather W. A., Tanabe T., Zhang J.-F., Mori Y., Adams M. E. and Tsien R. W. (1993) Neuron 11, 291-303]. Thus, alpha 1A is capable of generating a Ca2+ channel with characteristics quite distinct from P-type channels. Doe-1, recently cloned from the forebrain of a marine ray, is another alpha 1 subunit which exemplifies a different branch of the Ca2+ channel family tree [Horne W. A., Ellinor P. T., Inman I., Zhou M., Tsien R. W. and Schwarz T. L. (1993) Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 3787-3791]. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, doe-1 forms a high voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ channel [Ellinor P. T., Zhang J.-F., Randall A. D., Zhou M., Schwarz T. L., Tsien R. W. and Horne W. (1993) Nature 363, 455-458]. It inactivates more rapidly than any previously expressed calcium channel and is not blocked by dihydropyridine antagonists or omega-Aga-IVA. Doe-1 current is reduced by omega-CTx-GVIA, but the inhibition is readily reversible and requires micromolar toxin, in contrast to this toxin's potent and irreversible block of N-type channels. Doe-1 shows considerable sensitivity to block by Ni2+ or Cd2+. We have identified components of Ca2+ channel current in rat cerebellar granule neurons with kinetic and pharmacological features similar to alpha 1A and doe-1 in oocytes [Randall A. D., Wendland B., Schweizer F., Miljanich G., Adams M. E. and Tsien R. W. (1993) Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 19, 1478]. The doe-1-like component (R-type current) inactivates much more quickly than L, N or P-type channels, and also differs significantly in its pharmacology.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)