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Structural determinants for interaction with three different effectors on the G protein beta subunit.

K Yan, N Gautam

J. Biol. Chem., 1997 Jan 24 , 272, 2056-9

In the yeast two-hybrid system, a 100-residue fragment (beta1A) from the N terminus of the beta1 subunit interacts with domains specific to adenylyl cyclase 2 (AC2), the muscarinic atrial potassium channel (GIRK1), and phospholipase C-beta2 (PLC-beta2). Based on the crystal structure of the G protein, beta1A is composed of an N-terminal alpha helix, a loop, and five beta strands in which the C-terminal four beta strands form a beta sheet, the first of seven sheets that make up the propeller structure of the beta subunit. A mutant of beta1A (L4P, L7P, and L14P), in which the alpha helix was potentially destroyed, interacted poorly with the G protein gamma subunit but effectively with domains of AC2, GIRK1, and PLC-beta2. In contrast, another mutant of beta1A (S72A, D76A, and W82A), in which a network of hydrogen bonds was disrupted, interacted poorly with GIRK1 and PLC-beta2 domains, but effectively with the gamma subunit and the AC2 domain. These results suggest that the proper folding of the first five beta strands in the G protein beta subunit is a requirement for appropriately positioning residues that interact with GIRK1 and PLC-beta2. Furthermore, since mutations that potentially disrupted the folding of these beta strands did not affect interaction with AC2, the structural determinants on the G protein beta subunit for interaction with various effectors may be different.