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Sodium channel abnormalities are infrequent in patients with long QT syndrome: identification of two novel SCN5A mutations.

D Wattanasirichaigoon, M R Vesely, P Duggal, J C Levine, E D Blume, G S Wolff, S B Edwards, A H Beggs

Am. J. Med. Genet., 1999 Oct 29 , 86, 470-6

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heterogeneous disorder caused by mutations of at least five different loci. Three of these, LQT1, LQT2, and LQT5, encode potassium channel subunits. LQT3 encodes the cardiac-specific sodium channel, SCN5A. Previously reported LQTS-associated mutations of SCN5A include a recurring three amino acid deletion (DeltaKPQ1505-1507) in four different families, and four different missense mutations. We have examined the SCN5A gene in 88 index cases with LQTS, including four with Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome and the remainder with Romano-Ward syndrome. Screening portions of DIII-DIV, where mutations have previously been found, showed that none of these patients has the three amino acid deletion, DeltaKPQ1505-1507, or the other four known mutations. We identified a novel missense mutation, T1645M, in the DIV; S4 voltage sensor immediately adjacent to the previously reported mutation R1644H. We also examined all of the additional pore-forming regions and voltage-sensing regions and discovered another novel mutation, T1304M, at the voltage-sensing region DIII; S4. Neither T1645M nor T1304M were seen in a panel of unaffected control individuals. Five of six T1304M gene carriers were symptomatic. In contrast to previous studies, QT(onset-c) was not a sensitive indicator of SCN5A-associated LQTS, at least in this family. These data suggest that mutations of SCN5A are responsible for only a small proportion of LQTS cases.