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Lipophilic and stereospecific interactions of amino-amide local anesthetics with human Kv1.1 channels.

Mark A Punke, Patrick Friederich

Anesthesiology, 2008 Nov , 109, 895-904

BACKGROUND: This study's aim was to investigate the interaction of amino-amide local anesthetics with human Kv1.1 potassium channels. These channels were chosen because of their proven physiologic role. By using a homolog series of local anesthetics with different lengths of the N-substituent, it was intended to elucidate the role of lipophilic interactions with Kv1.1. The use of stereoisomers allowed testing of the role of polar drug actions. METHODS: Human Kv1.1 channels were measured with the patch clamp technique. Concentration-response data were described by Hill functions. Gating changes were described by Boltzmann functions. RESULTS: Inhibition of Kv1.1 channels by dextrobupivacaine, bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, dextroropivacaine, levoropivacaine, and mepivacaine was concentration dependent, reversible, stereoselective, voltage dependent, and frequency independent. The IC(50) values were (mean +/- SEM) 41 +/- 3 microm (n = 20), 56 +/- 3 microm (n = 26), 76 +/- 8 microm (n = 24), 135 +/- 29 microm (n = 23), 313 +/- 32 microm (n = 25), and 1,451 +/- 351 microm (n = 23), respectively. The midpoint of current activation was shifted into the hyperpolarizing direction. The inhibitory potency as well as the potency to induce gating changes correlated with the number of CH(2) groups in the side chain of the drugs (r > 0.9, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Kv1.1 channels constitute an important biophysical model for elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying local anesthetic drug effects. Inhibition likely results from an open state-dependent blocking mechanism. Interaction of local anesthetics with the ion channel protein is determined by lipophilic drug properties.