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Regulation of cloned ATP-sensitive K channels by adenine nucleotides and sulfonylureas: interactions between SUR1 and positively charged domains on Kir6.2.

S A John, J N Weiss, B Ribalet

J. Gen. Physiol., 2001 Oct , 118, 391-405

K(ATP) channels, comprised of the pore-forming protein Kir6.x and the sulfonylurea receptor SURx, are regulated in an interdependent manner by adenine nucleotides, PIP2, and sulfonylureas. To gain insight into these interactions, we investigated the effects of mutating positively charged residues in Kir6.2, previously implicated in the response to PIP2, on channel regulation by adenine nucleotides and the sulfonylurea glyburide. Our data show that the Kir6.2 "PIP2-insensitive" mutants R176C and R177C are not reactivated by MgADP after ATP-induced inhibition and are also insensitive to glyburide. These results suggest that R176 and R177 are required for functional coupling to SUR1, which confers MgADP and sulfonylurea sensitivity to the K(ATP) channel. In contrast, the R301C and R314C mutants, which are also "PIP2-insensitive," remained sensitive to stimulation by MgADP in the absence of ATP and were inhibited by glyburide. Based on these findings, as well as previous data, we propose a model of the K(ATP) channel whereby in the presence of ATP, the R176 and R177 residues on Kir6.2 form a specific site that interacts with NBF1 bound to ATP on SUR1, promoting channel opening by counteracting the inhibition by ATP. This interaction is facilitated by binding of MgADP to NBF2 and blocked by binding of sulfonylureas to SUR1. In the absence of ATP, since K(ATP) channels are not blocked by ATP, they do not require the counteracting effect of NBF1 interacting with R176 and R177 to open. Nevertheless, channels in this state remain activated by MgADP. This effect may be explained by a direct stimulatory interaction of NBF2/MgADP moiety with another region of Kir6.2 (perhaps the NH2 terminus), or by NBF2/MgADP still promoting a weak interaction between NBF1 and Kir6.2 in the absence of ATP. The region delimited by R301 and R314 is not involved in the interaction with NBF1 or NBF2, but confers additional PIP2 sensitivity.