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Inhibition of the K+ channel kv1.4 by acidosis: protonation of an extracellular histidine slows the recovery from N-type inactivation.

T W Claydon, M R Boyett, A Sivaprasadarao, K Ishii, J M Owen, H A O'Beirne, R Leach, K Komukai, C H Orchard

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 2000 Jul 15 , 526 Pt 2, 253-64

1. Acidosis alters the transient outward current, ito, in the heart. We have studied the mechanism underlying the effect of acidosis on one of the K+ channels, Kv1.4 (heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes), known to underlie ito. 2. At pH 6.5, wild-type Kv1.4 current was inhibited during repetitive pulsing, in part as a result of a slowing of recovery from N-type inactivation. 3. Acidosis still caused slowing of recovery after deletion of just one (either the first or second) of the N-terminal inactivation ball domains. However, deletion of both the N-terminal inactivation ball domains greatly reduced the inhibition. 4. As well as the N-terminus, other parts of the channel are also required for the effect of acidosis, because, whereas the transfer of the N-terminus of Kv1.4 to Kv1.2 conferred N-type inactivation, it did not confer acidosis sensitivity. 5. Replacement of an extracellular histidine with a glutamine residue (H508Q) abolished the slowing of recovery by acidosis. Reduction of C-type inactivation by raising the bathing K+ concentration or by the mutation K532Y also abolished the slowing. 6. It is concluded that binding of protons to H508 enhances C-type inactivation and this causes a slowing of recovery from N-type inactivation and, thus, an inhibition of current during repetitive pulsing.