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Regulation of cloned ATP-sensitive K channels by phosphorylation, MgADP, and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP(2)): a study of channel rundown and reactivation.

B Ribalet, S A John, J N Weiss

J. Gen. Physiol., 2000 Sep , 116, 391-410

Kir6.2 channels linked to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) (Kir6. 2-GFP) have been expressed alone or with the sulfonylurea receptor SUR1 in HEK293 cells to study the regulation of K(ATP) channels by adenine nucleotides, phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP(2)), and phosphorylation. Upon excision of inside-out patches into a Ca(2+)- and MgATP-free solution, the activity of Kir6.2-GFP+SUR1 channels spontaneously ran down, first quickly within a minute, and then more slowly over tens of minutes. In contrast, under the same conditions, the activity of Kir6.2-GFP alone exhibited only slow rundown. Thus, fast rundown is specific to Kir6.2-GFP+SUR1 and involves SUR1, while slow rundown is a property of both Kir6.2-GFP and Kir6.2-GFP+SUR1 channels and is due, at least in part, to Kir6.2 alone. Kir6. 2-GFP+SUR1 fast phase of rundown was of variable amplitude and led to increased ATP sensitivity. Excising patches into a solution containing MgADP prevented this phenomenon, suggesting that fast rundown involves loss of MgADP-dependent stimulation conferred by SUR1. With both Kir6.2-GFP and Kir6.2-GFP+SUR1, the slow phase of rundown led to further increase in ATP sensitivity. Ca(2+) accelerated this process, suggesting a role for PIP(2) hydrolysis mediated by a Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase C. PIP(2) could reactivate channel activity after a brief exposure to Ca(2+), but not after prolonged exposure. However, in both cases, PIP(2) reversed the increase in ATP sensitivity, indicating that PIP(2) lowers the ATP sensitivity by increasing P(o) as well as by decreasing the channel affinity for ATP. With Kir6.2-GFP+SUR1, slow rundown also caused loss of MgADP stimulation and sulfonylurea inhibition, suggesting functional uncoupling of SUR1 from Kir6.2-GFP. Ca(2+) facilitated the loss of sensitivity to MgADP, and thus uncoupling of the two subunits. The nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H-7 and the selective PKC inhibitor peptide 19-36 evoked, within 5-15 min, increased ATP sensitivity and loss of reactivation by PIP(2) and MgADP. Phosphorylation of Kir6.2 may thus be required for the channel to remain PIP(2) responsive, while phosphorylation of Kir6.2 and/or SUR1 is required for functional coupling. In summary, short-term regulation of Kir6.2+SUR1 channels involves MgADP, while long-term regulation requires PIP(2) and phosphorylation.